Skip to main content
Business LibreTexts

Criminology 1 – Introduction to Criminology (Cartwright)

  • Page ID
    66330
  • Welcome to Introduction to Criminology at Reedley College. This textbook was designed especially for Reedley College Criminology students. It will provide an overview of the three components of the Criminal Justice System: Law Enforcement, Courts, and Corrections. There are four types of interactive features in this book to help you, the student, engage with the various concepts and procedures behind criminology.

    Compiled by Dr. George Cartwright

    Editor: Trudi Radtke

    Thumbnail: pixabay.com/photos/fingerpri...attern-456483/

    ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

    We would like to extend appreciation to the following people and organizations for making this textbook possible:

    State Center Community College District

    Reedley College

    Madera Community College

    Content Selected and Compiled by:

    Dr. George Cartwright

    Special thanks to Trudi Radtke who conducted all the research and compiled all the content for this textbook. Were it not for her brilliance, this project would not have been possible.

    Cover by: Trudi Radtke

    *Unless otherwise noted, the content in this textbook is licensed under CC BY 4.0

    PREFACE

    Welcome to Introduction to Criminology at Reedley College. This textbook was designed especially for Reedley College Criminology students. It will provide an overview of the three components of the Criminal Justice System: Law Enforcement, Courts, and Corrections. There are four types of interactive features in this book to help you, the student, engage with the various concepts and procedures behind criminology.

    pin icon

    Pin It! Boxes

    These boxes refer to information that you should mentally “pin” for later. Remembering the information included in Pin It! boxes will help you better understand following textbook material.

    question mark icon

    Think about It… Boxes

    Think about It… boxes encourage you to do just that, think about the information provided in the box and form an opinion. Often, what’s placed in these boxes are ideas or issues that are controversial, such as the death penalty or immigration concerns. Sometimes these topics can be difficult to think about objectively because they are emotionally charged. However, taking a moment to consider your values and beliefs and how they affect your opinions and decision making, produces mental stamina which is an important life skill. Remember, the brain is a muscle too.

    quote icon

    Quotable - Box

    Quotable boxes contain relevant quotes that pertain to information in the text. A good quote is an effective way to quickly summarize a complex topic or idea.

    clapboard icon

    Act it Out - Box

    Act it Out boxes provide you opportunities to interact with the materials, either by dividing into class groups and answering questions, or doing some investigative research on your own.

    References


    [1] Image is licensed under CC BY-SA: Attribution-ShareAlike .

    [2] Morey, T. 6.3. Policing Eras . SOUCCJ230 Introduction to the American Criminal Justice System. https://openoregon.pressbooks.pub/cc...policing-eras/.

    [3] Fedorek, B. 5.1. What is Theory? SOUCCJ230 Introduction to the American Criminal Justice System. https://openoregon.pressbooks.pub/cc...hat-is-theory/.

    [4] Lumen. Introduction to Sociology . Lumen Learning. https://courses.lumenlearning.com/wm...ustice-system/.

    Sanchez, S. 1.7. The Three C's: Cops, Courts, and Corrections . SOUCCJ230 Introduction to the American Criminal Justice System. https://openoregon.pressbooks.pub/cc...d-corrections/.

    [5] (Photo courtesy of isafmedia/flickr)

    [6] (Photo (a) courtesy of Ammodramus/Wikimedia Commons; Photo (b) courtesy of Steve & Christine/Wikimedia Commons)

    [7] Pew Research Center, Washington, D.C. (May 1, 2018).

    [8] Williams, L. Introduction to Business . Lumen. https://courses.lumenlearning.com/in...sus-civil-law/.

    [9] Source: Adapted from Nancy A. Kubasek, Bartley A. Brennan, and M. Neil Browne, The Legal Environment of Business: A Critical Thinking Approach, 5th ed. (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, 2009), 348.

    [10] Source: Adapted from Henry R. Cheesman, Contemporary Business and Online Commerce Law: Legal, Internet, Ethical, and Global Environments, 5th ed. (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, 2006), 127.

    [11] . Mckee, A. Criminal Justice . Lumen. https://courses.lumenlearning.com/at...-criminal-law/.

    [12] Rutz-Burri, L. 3.12. Procedural Law . SOUCCJ230 Introduction to the American Criminal Justice System. https://openoregon.pressbooks.pub/cc...sed-sanctions/.

    [13] Department of Social Work. (2017, August 28). Chapter 11: Social Work in Criminal Justice Settings . Introduction to Social Work at Ferris State University. https://ferrisintroductiontosocialwo...tice-settings/.

    [14] Image is in the public domain.

    [15] Sanchez, S. 1.7. The Three C's: Cops, Courts, and Corrections . SOUCCJ230 Introduction to the American Criminal Justice System. https://openoregon.pressbooks.pub/cc...d-corrections/.

    [16] Image is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License

    [17] Gehl, R., & Plecas, D. (2017, August 1). Chapter 4: The Process of Investigation . Introduction to Criminal Investigation Processes Practices and Thinking. https://pressbooks.bccampus.ca/crimi...investigation/.

    [18] Image is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License

    [19] Image is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License

    [20] Image is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License

    [21] Sanchez, S. 1.8. The Crime Control and Due Process Models . SOUCCJ230 Introduction to the American Criminal Justice System. https://openoregon.pressbooks.pub/cc...control-model/.

    [22] Carter, D. 8.5. Rehabilitation . SOUCCJ230 Introduction to the American Criminal Justice System. https://openoregon.pressbooks.pub/cc...rehabilitation.

    [23] Image is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License

    [24] Carter, D. 9.10. Restorative Justice . SOUCCJ230 Introduction to the American Criminal Justice System. https://openoregon.pressbooks.pub/cc...ative-justice/.

    [25] Image is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License

    [26] Sanchez, S. 1.5. Consensus View and Decriminalizing Laws . SOUCCJ230 Introduction to the American Criminal Justice System. https://openoregon.pressbooks.pub/ccj230/chapter/1-5/.

    [27] Image is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License

    [28] Libretexts. (2020, June 4). 1.6: Conflict View . Business LibreTexts. biz.libretexts.org/Bookshelv..._Conflict_View.

    [29] Sanchez, S. 1.4. Interactionist View . SOUCCJ230 Introduction to the American Criminal Justice System. https://openoregon.pressbooks.pub/cc...becomes-a-law/.

    [30] Image is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License

    [31] Image is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License

    [32] Vollman, B. Criminal Justice . Lumen. https://courses.lumenlearning.com/at...asuring-crime/.

    [33] Wikimedia Commons – public domain.

    [34] Source: Data from Pastore, A. L., & Maguire, K. (2010). Sourcebook of criminal justice statistics. Retrieved from http://www.albany.edu/sourcebook .

    [35] University of Minnesota. (2016, April 8). 7.3 Crime and Criminals . Sociology. https://open.lib.umn.edu/sociology/c...and-criminals/.

    [36] Sanchez, S. 2.2. Official Statistics . SOUCCJ230 Introduction to the American Criminal Justice System. https://openoregon.pressbooks.pub/cc...al-statistics/.

    [37] Image is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License

    [38] McLean, T. (2016, March 25). Social Problems . Lumen. https://courses.lumenlearning.com/at...commits-crime/.

    [39] Source: Data from Federal Bureau of Investigation. (2011). Crime in the United States, 2010. Washington, DC: Author.

    [40] Philippe Put – Fight – CC BY 2.0.

    [41] Source: Data from Federal Bureau of Investigation. (2011). Crime in the United States, 2010. Washington, DC: Author.

    [42] Sanchez, S. 1.14. Victims and Victim Typologies . SOUCCJ230 Introduction to the American Criminal Justice System. https://openoregon.pressbooks.pub/cc...the-cj-system/.

    [43] Vollman, B. Criminal Justice . Lumen. https://courses.lumenlearning.com/at...of-punishment/.

    [44] Libretexts. (2020, December 16). 7.3B: Biological Theories of Deviance . Social Sci LibreTexts. https://socialsci.libretexts.org/Boo...es_of_Deviance.

    [45] Image is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 3.0

    [46] Image is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 3.0

    [47] Lumen. Introduction to Psychology . Lumen. https://courses.lumenlearning.com/ws...c-perspective/.

    [48] Image is licensed under CC BY: Attribution

    [49] Image is licensed under CC BY: Attribution

    [50] Image is licensed under CC BY: Attribution

    [51] Florida State College at Jacksonville. Child and Adolescent Psychology . Lumen. https://courses.lumenlearning.com/at...tive-theories/.

    [52] McKee, A. (2018, August 13). Criminology: Section 5.3 . Professor McKee's Things and Stuff. https://www.docmckee.com/WP/oer/crim...y-section-5-3/.

    [53] McKee, A. (2018, August 13). Criminology: Section 5.2 . Professor McKee's Things and Stuff. https://www.docmckee.com/WP/oer/crim...y-section-5-2/.

    [54] McLean, T. (2016, March 25). Social Problems . Lumen. https://courses.lumenlearning.com/at...laining-crime/.

    [55] Fedorek, B. 5.9. Strain Theories . SOUCCJ230 Introduction to the American Criminal Justice System. https://openoregon.pressbooks.pub/cc...rain-theories/.

    [56] Vollman, B. Criminal Justice . Lumen. https://courses.lumenlearning.com/at...s-on-deviance/.

    [57] Libretexts. (2020, December 16). 1.3C: The Conflict Perspective . Social Sci LibreTexts. https://socialsci.libretexts.org/Boo...ct_Perspective.

    [58] University of Minnesota. (2016, April 8). Socialization Through the Life Course . Introduction to Sociology Understanding and Changing the Social World. https://pressbooks.howardcc.edu/soci...e-life-course/.

    [59] Neeta Lind – IMG_3646 – CC BY 2.0.

    [60] Image is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License

    [61] Blaise Alleyne – Husband and Wife exit the Church – CC BY-SA 2.0.

    [62] University of Minnesota. (2015, December 17). Criminal Law . 1.2 Criminal Law and Criminal Procedure | Criminal Law. https://courses.lumenlearning.com/su...nal-procedure/.

    [63] Image is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA: Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike

    [64] University of Minnesota. (2015, December 17). Criminal Law . 1.4 Classification of Crimes | Criminal Law. https://courses.lumenlearning.com/su...ion-of-crimes/.

    [65] Rutz-Burri, L. 3.6. Classifications of Law . SOUCCJ230 Introduction to the American Criminal Justice System. https://openoregon.pressbooks.pub/ccj230/chapter/8-6/.

    [66] Image is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA: Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike

    [67] University of Minnesota. (2015, December 17). 4.1 Criminal Elements . Criminal Law. https://open.lib.umn.edu/criminallaw...inal-elements/.

    [68] Image is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License

    [69] University of Minnesota. (2015, December 17). 1.6 Sources of Law . Criminal Law. https://open.lib.umn.edu/criminallaw...ources-of-law/.

    [70] Image is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License

    [71] Image is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License

    [72] Image is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License

    [73] Image is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License

    [74] Vollman, B. Criminal Justice . Lumen. https://courses.lumenlearning.com/at...nts-of-crimes/.

    [75] Dostal, P. Stare Decisis . Stare Decisis - Criminal Law Notebook. http://criminalnotebook.ca/index.php/Stare_Decisis.

    [76] University of Minnesota. (2015, December 17). 4.2 Criminal Intent . Criminal Law. https://open.lib.umn.edu/criminallaw...iminal-intent/.

    [77] University of Minnesota. (2015, December 17). Criminal Law . 5.1 Criminal Defenses | Criminal Law. https://courses.lumenlearning.com/su...inal-defenses/.

    [78] Image is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA: Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike

    [79] Image is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA: Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike

    [80] Vollman, B. Criminal Justice . Lumen. https://courses.lumenlearning.com/at...egal-defenses/.

    [81] Rutz-Burri, L. 3.7. Substantive Law: Defining Crimes, Inchoate Liability, Accomplice Liability, and Defenses . SOUCCJ230 Introduction to the American Criminal Justice System. https://openoregon.pressbooks.pub/cc...ations-of-law/.

    [82] Image is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA: Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike

    [83] Image is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License

    [84] SBCTC and Lumen. American Government . Lumen. https://courses.lumenlearning.com/us...ill-of-rights/.

    [85] Image is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA: Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike

    [86] United States Constitution. (2020, July 9). Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution . Wikipedia. https://simple.Wikipedia.org/wiki/Fo...s_Constitution.

    [87] Image is in the public domain

    [88] Boundless. Political Science: The Exclusionary Rule. http://oer2go.org/mods/en-boundless/...092/index.html.

    [89] Image is in the public domain

    [90] McCartney, S., & Parent, R. 8.1 Police Subculture . Ethics in Law Enforcement. https://ecampusontario.pressbooks.pu...olice-culture/.

    [91] Image is in the public domain

    [92] Gehl, R., & Plecas, D. (2017, August 1). Chapter 1: Introduction . Introduction to Criminal Investigation Processes Practices and Thinking. https://pressbooks.bccampus.ca/crimi...-introduction/.

    [93] Libretexts. (2020, December 15). 6.4: Responsibility . Business LibreTexts. biz.libretexts.org/Bookshelv...Responsibility.

    [94] Gehl, R., & Plecas, D. (2017, August 1). Chapter 10: Forensic Sciences . Introduction to Criminal Investigation Processes Practices and Thinking. https://pressbooks.bccampus.ca/crimi...nsic-sciences/.

    [95] Ronda, M. Criminal Justice in the Urban Community . Lumen. https://courses.lumenlearning.com/at...roken-windows/.

    [96] Libretexts. (2020, December 12). 7.6: Multi-Facet Policing Strategies Employed in York, Pennsylvania . Humanities LibreTexts. https://human.libretexts.org/Bookshe...,_Pennsylvania.

    [97] Patil, R. R., & Bagavandas, M. (2020, January 22). Gender Discrimination as Determinants of Stress in Police Profession . Journal of Forensic Sciences & Criminal Investigation. https://juniperpublishers.com/jfsci/....ID.555863.php.

    [98] McCartney, S., & Parent, R. (2015, April 17). 8.1 Police Subculture . Ethics in Law Enforcement. https://opentextbc.ca/ethicsinlawenf...olice-culture/.

    [99] McCartney, S., & Parent, R. 7.1 The Ethics Surrounding Discretion . Ethics in Law Enforcement. https://ecampusontario.pressbooks.pu...ng-discretion/.

    [100] Nagle, K. Organizational Behavior . 7.5 Emotions at Work | Organizational Behavior. https://courses.lumenlearning.com/su...tions-at-work/.

    [101] Image is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA: Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike

    [102] Image is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA: Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike

    [103] Image is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA: Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike

    [104] Wihbey, J. (2018, December 21). Excessive or reasonable force by police? Research on law enforcement and racial conflict . Journalist's Resource. https://journalistsresource.org/stud...ew-statistics/.

    Utah Education Network. Law Enforcement and Criminal Justice Manual . OER Commons. https://www.oercommons.org/courses/l...ce-manual/view.

    [105] Boudreau, D., & Somerville, M. (2014, July 17). [Full text] Euthanasia and assisted suicide: a physician's and ethicist&rsqu: MB . Medicolegal and Bioethics. https://www.dovepress.com/euthanasia...ext-article-MB.

    [106] University of Minnesota. (2015, December 17). 10.3 Domestic Violence and Stalking . Criminal Law. https://open.lib.umn.edu/criminallaw...-and-stalking/.

    [107] Image is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

    [108] Image is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

    [109] Image is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

    [110] Vollman, B. Criminal Justice . Lumen. https://courses.lumenlearning.com/at...ocial-control/.

    [111] Morey, T. 6.9. Current Issues: Use of Force and Vehicle Pursuits . SOUCCJ230 Introduction to the American Criminal Justice System. https://openoregon.pressbooks.pub/cc...-use-of-force/.

    [112] Image is licensed under CC BY: Attribution

    [113] University of Minnesota. (2015, December 17). 5.3 Other Use-of-Force Defenses . Criminal Law. https://open.lib.umn.edu/criminallaw...orce-defenses/.

    [114] Gehl, R., & Plecas, D. (2017, August 1). Chapter 9: Interviewing, Questioning, and Interrogation . Introduction to Criminal Investigation Processes Practices and Thinking. https://pressbooks.bccampus.ca/crimi...interrogation/.

    [115] Image is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License

    [116] Image is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License

    [117] Boundless, P. S. The Miranda Warning. http://oer2go.org/mods/en-boundless/...695/index.html.

    [118] Criminal Law Notebook. Admissions and Confessions . Admissions and Confessions - Criminal Law Notebook. http://criminalnotebook.ca/index.php...nd_Confessions.

    [119] Image is licensed under CC BY-SA 4.0

    [120] Vollman, B. Criminal Justice . Lumen. https://courses.lumenlearning.com/at...t-of-policing/.

    [121] Rutz-Burri, L. 7.4. Structure of the Courts: State Courts . SOUCCJ230 Introduction to the American Criminal Justice System. https://openoregon.pressbooks.pub/cc...rts-continued/.

    [122] Campbell, M. American Government . Lumen. https://courses.lumenlearning.com/at...-court-system/.

    [123] Image is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License

    [124] Rutz-Burri, L. 7.8. Courtroom Players: Judges and Court Staff . SOUCCJ230 Introduction to the American Criminal Justice System. https://openoregon.pressbooks.pub/cc...r-state-cases/.

    [125] Image is licensed under CC BY: Attribution

    [126] Image is licensed under CC BY: Attribution

    [127] https://openoregon.pressbooks.pub/cc...r-state-cases/

    [128] Martella, M. Law 101: Fundamentals of the Law . ROE v. WADE | Law 101: Fundamentals of the Law. https://courses.lumenlearning.com/su...-u-s-113-1973/.

    [129] Burrell, K. United States History: Reconstruction to the Present . Lumen. https://courses.lumenlearning.com/at...n-347-u-s-483/.

    [130] Knights, W. Loving v. Virginia . Constitutional Law. https://pressbooks.online.ucf.edu/co...ng-v-virginia/.

    [131] SBCTC & Lumen Learning. Business Law . Lumen. https://courses.lumenlearning.com/ma...ter/the-trial/.

    [132] Libretexts. (2020, August 10). 6.6: Constitutional Rights of the Accused . Business LibreTexts. biz.libretexts.org/Bookshelv...of_the_Accused.

    [133] Criminal Law Notebook. Standard of Proof . Standard of Proof - Criminal Law Notebook. http://criminalnotebook.ca/index.php...ndard_of_Proof.

    [134] United States Courts. Covering Criminal Trials – Journalist's Guide . United States Courts. https://www.uscourts.gov/statistics-...rnalists-guide.

    [135] Carter, D. 8.1. A Brief History of The Philosophies of Punishment . SOUCCJ230 Introduction to the American Criminal Justice System. https://openoregon.pressbooks.pub/cc...of-punishment/.

    [136] Vollman, B. Criminal Justice . Lumen. https://courses.lumenlearning.com/at...of-punishment/.

    [137] Vollman, B. Criminal Justice . Lumen. https://courses.lumenlearning.com/at...5-5-sentencing.

    Libretexts. (2020, June 4). 3.8: Substantive Law - Punishment- Incarceration and Confinement Sanctions . Business LibreTexts. biz.libretexts.org/Bookshelv...ment_Sanctions.

    [138] Vollman, B. Criminal Justice . Lumen. https://courses.lumenlearning.com/at...-5-sentencing/.

    [139] Criminal Law Notebook. Sentencing Factors Relating to the Offender . Sentencing Factors Relating to the Offender - Criminal Law Notebook. http://criminalnotebook.ca/index.php...o_the_Offender.

    [140] Libretexts. (2020, December 16). 7.8D: The Death Penalty . Social Sci LibreTexts. https://socialsci.libretexts.org/Boo..._Death_Penalty.

    [141] Image is in the public domain.

    [142] Libretexts. (2020, June 15). 2.4: An Argument Against Capital Punishment (Noah Levin) . Humanities LibreTexts. https://human.libretexts.org/Bookshe...t_(Noah_Levin).

    [143] Strang, M. K. (2019, August 1). Refuting Capital Punishment in America . English 100 Course Readings. https://wisc.pb.unizin.org/english10...nt-in-america/.

    [144] Carter, D. 9.3. Probation . SOUCCJ230 Introduction to the American Criminal Justice System. https://openoregon.pressbooks.pub/cc...9-3-probation/.

    [145] Image is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License .

    [146] Image is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License .

    [147] Vollman, B. Criminal Justice . Lumen. https://courses.lumenlearning.com/at...e-and-the-law/.

    [148] Wikibooks. US Criminal Law/Search and seizure/Without a warrant . US Criminal Law/Search and seizure/Without a warrant - Wikibooks, open books for an open world. https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/US_Cri...hout_a_warrant.

    [149] Verkerke, J. H. V. (2015, February 26). Revocation of Offers . Go to the cover page of Contracts Doctrine, Theory and Practice. http://verkerkecontractsone.lawbooks...ion-of-offers/.

    [150] Carter, D. 9.2. Intermediate Sanctions . SOUCCJ230 Introduction to the American Criminal Justice System. https://openoregon.pressbooks.pub/cc...ate-sanctions/.

    [151] Image is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License .

    [152] Carter, D. 9.10. Restorative Justice . SOUCCJ230 Introduction to the American Criminal Justice System. https://openoregon.pressbooks.pub/cc...ative-justice/.

    [153] Image is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License .

    [154] Carter, D. 9.16. Current Issues in Corrections: Reentry and the Future of Corrections . SOUCCJ230 Introduction to the American Criminal Justice System. https://openoregon.pressbooks.pub/cc...f-corrections/.

    [155] Vollman, B. Criminal Justice . Lumen. https://courses.lumenlearning.com/at...n-6-2-prisons/.

    [156] Carter, D. 8.11. Types of Prisons . SOUCCJ230 Introduction to the American Criminal Justice System. https://openoregon.pressbooks.pub/cc...es-of-prisons/.

    [157] Image is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License .

    [158] Image is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License .

    [159] Vollman, B. Criminal Justice . Lumen. https://courses.lumenlearning.com/at...soners-rights/.

    [160] Carter, D. 9.11. Parole . SOUCCJ230 Introduction to the American Criminal Justice System. https://openoregon.pressbooks.pub/cc...r/9-11-parole/.

    [161] Image is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License

    [162] Image is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License .

    [163] Burke, A. S. 10.10. The Structure of the Juvenile Justice System . SOUCCJ230 Introduction to the American Criminal Justice System. https://openoregon.pressbooks.pub/cc...ustice-system/.

    [164] Image is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License .

    [165] Libretexts. (2020, June 4). 10.6: Due Process in the Juvenile Court . Business LibreTexts. biz.libretexts.org/Bookshelv...Juvenile_Court.

    [166] Libretexts. (2020, December 16). 7.7D: Juvenile Crime . Social Sci LibreTexts. https://socialsci.libretexts.org/Boo...Juvenile_Crime.

    [167] Image is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 .

    [168] Libretexts. (2020, December 16). 15.6B: Terrorism . Social Sci LibreTexts. https://socialsci.libretexts.org/Boo....6B:_Terrorism.

    [169] McLean, T. (2016, March 25). Social Problems . Lumen. https://courses.lumenlearning.com/at...6-3-terrorism/.

    [170] Image is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 2.0 .

    [171] Image is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 .

    [172] Image is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 2.0 .

    [173] Image is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 2.0 .

    [174] Image is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 2.0 .

    [175] Martella, M. Law 101: Fundamentals of the Law . THE USA PATRIOT ACT | Law 101: Fundamentals of the Law. https://courses.lumenlearning.com/su...a-patriot-act/.

    [176] Wikibooks. Information Technology and Ethics/Cyber-Crimes . Information Technology and Ethics/Cyber-Crimes - Wikibooks, open books for an open world. https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Inform...s/Cyber-Crimes.

    • Was this article helpful?