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Glossary

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    54121
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    Glossary Entries
    Word(s) Definition Image Caption Link Source
    adaptor A product that allows a firm to tap into the complementary products, data, or user base of another product or service.        
    adaptor A product that allows a firm to tap into the complementary products, data, or user base of another product or service.        
    Affiliate programs A cost-per-action program, where program sponsors (e.g., Amazon.com, iTunes) pay referring Web sites a percentage of revenue earned from the referral.        
    Affiliate programs A cost-per-action program, where program sponsors (e.g., Amazon.com, iTunes) pay referring Web sites a percentage of revenue earned from the referral.        
    affiliates Third parties that promote a product or service, typically in exchange for a cut of any sales.        
    affiliates Third parties that promote a product or service, typically in exchange for a cut of any sales.        
    analytics A term describing the extensive use of data, statistical and quantitative analysis, explanatory and predictive models, and fact-based management to drive decisions and actions.        
    analytics A term describing the extensive use of data, statistical and quantitative analysis, explanatory and predictive models, and fact-based management to drive decisions and actions.        
    application programming interfaces (APIs) Programming hooks, or guidelines, published by firms that tell other programs how to get a service to perform a task such as send or receive data. For example, Amazon.com provides APIs to let developers write their own applications and Websites that can send the firm orders.        
    application programming interfaces (APIs) Programming hooks, or guidelines, published by firms that tell other programs how to get a service to perform a task such as send or receive data. For example, Amazon.com provides APIs to let developers write their own applications and Websites that can send the firm orders.        
    application programming interfaces (APIs) Programming hooks, or guidelines, published by firms that tell other programs how to get a service to perform a task such as send or receive data. For example, Amazon.com provides APIs to let developers write their own applications and Websites that can send the firm orders.        
    application programming interfaces (APIs) Programming hooks, or guidelines, published by firms that tell other programs how to get a service to perform a task such as send or receive data. For example, Amazon.com provides APIs to let developers write their own applications and Websites that can send the firm orders.        
    applications Includes desktop applications, enterprise software, utilities, and other programs that perform specific tasks for users and organizations.        
    applications Includes desktop applications, enterprise software, utilities, and other programs that perform specific tasks for users and organizations.        
    artificial intelligence Computer software that seeks to reproduce or mimic (perhaps with improvements) human thought, decision making, or brain functions.        
    artificial intelligence Computer software that seeks to reproduce or mimic (perhaps with improvements) human thought, decision making, or brain functions.        
    astroturfing Engineering the posting of positive comments and reviews of a firm’s product and services (or negative ones of a firm’s competitors). Many ratings sites will penalize firms that offer incentives for positive feedback posts.        
    astroturfing Engineering the posting of positive comments and reviews of a firm’s product and services (or negative ones of a firm’s competitors). Many ratings sites will penalize firms that offer incentives for positive feedback posts.        
    atoms to bits The idea that many media products are sold in containers (physical products, or atoms) for bits (the ones and zeros that make up a video file, song, or layout of a book). As the Internet offers fast wireless delivery to TVs, music players, book readers, and other devices, the “atoms” of the container aren’t necessary. Physical inventory is eliminated, offering great cost savings.        
    atoms to bits The idea that many media products are sold in containers (physical products, or atoms) for bits (the ones and zeros that make up a video file, song, or layout of a book). As the Internet offers fast wireless delivery to TVs, music players, book readers, and other devices, the “atoms” of the container aren’t necessary. Physical inventory is eliminated, offering great cost savings.        
    Augmented-reality Computer applications that overlay real-world images with computer-generated imagery and data.        
    Augmented-reality Computer applications that overlay real-world images with computer-generated imagery and data.        
    avatar An online identity expressed by an animated or cartoon figure.        
    avatar An online identity expressed by an animated or cartoon figure.        
    backward compatibility The ability to take advantage of complementary products developed for a prior generation of technology.        
    backward compatibility The ability to take advantage of complementary products developed for a prior generation of technology.        
    bandwidth Network transmission speeds, typically expressed in some form of bits per second (bps).        
    bandwidth Network transmission speeds, typically expressed in some form of bits per second (bps).        
    bandwidth caps A limit, imposed by the Internet service provider (e.g., a cable or telephone company) on the total amount of traffic that a given subscriber can consume (usually per each billing period).        
    bandwidth caps A limit, imposed by the Internet service provider (e.g., a cable or telephone company) on the total amount of traffic that a given subscriber can consume (usually per each billing period).        
    Biometrics Technologies that measure and analyze human body characteristics for identification or authentication. These might include fingerprint readers, retina scanners, voice and face recognition, and more.        
    Biometrics Technologies that measure and analyze human body characteristics for identification or authentication. These might include fingerprint readers, retina scanners, voice and face recognition, and more.        
    black hat hackers A computer criminal.        
    black hat hackers A computer criminal.        
    black swans Unpredicted, but highly impactful events. Scalable computing resources can help a firm deal with spiking impact from Black Swan events. The phrase entered the managerial lexicon from the 2007 book of the same name by Nassim Taleb.        
    black swans Unpredicted, but highly impactful events. Scalable computing resources can help a firm deal with spiking impact from Black Swan events. The phrase entered the managerial lexicon from the 2007 book of the same name by Nassim Taleb.        
    blog rolls A list of a blogger’s favorite blogs. While not all blogs include blog rolls, those that do are often displayed on the right or left column of a blog’s main page.        
    blog rolls A list of a blogger’s favorite blogs. While not all blogs include blog rolls, those that do are often displayed on the right or left column of a blog’s main page.        
    blue ocean strategy An approach where firms seek to create and compete in uncontested “blue ocean” market spaces, rather than competing in spaces and ways that have attracted many, similar rivals.        
    blue ocean strategy An approach where firms seek to create and compete in uncontested “blue ocean” market spaces, rather than competing in spaces and ways that have attracted many, similar rivals.        
    broadband Broadly refers to high-speed Internet connections and is often applied to “last-mile” technologies.        
    broadband Broadly refers to high-speed Internet connections and is often applied to “last-mile” technologies.        
    brute-force attacks An attack that exhausts all possible password combinations in order to break into an account. The larger and more complicated a password or key, the longer a brute-force attack will take.        
    brute-force attacks An attack that exhausts all possible password combinations in order to break into an account. The larger and more complicated a password or key, the longer a brute-force attack will take.        
    business intelligence (BI) systems Systems that use data created by other systems to provide reporting and analysis for organizational decision making.        
    business intelligence (BI) systems Systems that use data created by other systems to provide reporting and analysis for organizational decision making.        
    cache A temporary storage space used to speed computing tasks.        
    cache A temporary storage space used to speed computing tasks.        
    cache A temporary storage space used to speed computing tasks.        
    cache A temporary storage space used to speed computing tasks.        
    capability maturity model integration (CMMI) A process-improvement approach (useful for but not limited to software engineering projects) that can assist in assessing the maturity, quality, and development of certain organizational business processes, and suggest steps for their improvement.        
    capability maturity model integration (CMMI) A process-improvement approach (useful for but not limited to software engineering projects) that can assist in assessing the maturity, quality, and development of certain organizational business processes, and suggest steps for their improvement.        
    CAPTCHAs An acronym for Completely Automated Public Turing Test to Tell Computers and Humans Apart. CAPTCHAs are those scrambled character images that many sites require to submit some sort of entry (account setup, ticket buying). CAPTCHAs were developed because computers have difficulty discerning letters that are distorted or mixed inside a jumbled graphic. CAPTCHAs are meant to be a Turing Test—a test to distinguish if a task is being performed by a computer or a human.        
    CAPTCHAs An acronym for Completely Automated Public Turing Test to Tell Computers and Humans Apart. CAPTCHAs are those scrambled character images that many sites require to submit some sort of entry (account setup, ticket buying). CAPTCHAs were developed because computers have difficulty discerning letters that are distorted or mixed inside a jumbled graphic. CAPTCHAs are meant to be a Turing Test—a test to distinguish if a task is being performed by a computer or a human.        
    cash-out fraudsters Firms that purchase assets from data harvesters. Actions may include using stolen credit card numbers to purchase goods, creating fake accounts via identity fraud, and more.        
    cash-out fraudsters Firms that purchase assets from data harvesters. Actions may include using stolen credit card numbers to purchase goods, creating fake accounts via identity fraud, and more.        
    certificate authority A trusted third party that provides authentication services in public key encryption schemes.        
    certificate authority A trusted third party that provides authentication services in public key encryption schemes.        
    churn rate The rate at which customers leave a product or service.        
    churn rate The rate at which customers leave a product or service.        
    click farms Recruiting a network of users to engage in click fraud with the goal of spreading IP addresses across several systems and make a fraud effort more difficult to detect.        
    click farms Recruiting a network of users to engage in click fraud with the goal of spreading IP addresses across several systems and make a fraud effort more difficult to detect.        
    click fraud Generating bogus clicks, either for financial gain (enriching fraud), or to attack rivals by draining their online ad budget (depleting fraud).        
    click fraud Generating bogus clicks, either for financial gain (enriching fraud), or to attack rivals by draining their online ad budget (depleting fraud).        
    client A software program that makes requests of a server program.        
    client A software program that makes requests of a server program.        
    cloud A collection of resources available for access over the Internet.        
    cloud A collection of resources available for access over the Internet.        
    coaxial cable Insulated copper cable commonly used by cable television providers.        
    coaxial cable Insulated copper cable commonly used by cable television providers.        
    collaborative filtering A classification of software that monitors trends among customers and uses this data to personalize an individual customer’s experience.        
    collaborative filtering A classification of software that monitors trends among customers and uses this data to personalize an individual customer’s experience.        
    colocation facility Sometimes called a “colo,” or carrier hotel; provides a place where the gear from multiple firms can come together and where the peering of Internet traffic can take place. Equipment connecting in colos could be high-speed lines from ISPs, telecom lines from large private data centers, or even servers hosted in a colo to be closer to high-speed Internet connections.        
    colocation facility Sometimes called a “colo,” or carrier hotel; provides a place where the gear from multiple firms can come together and where the peering of Internet traffic can take place. Equipment connecting in colos could be high-speed lines from ISPs, telecom lines from large private data centers, or even servers hosted in a colo to be closer to high-speed Internet connections.        
    column or field A column in a database table. Columns represent each category of data contained in a record (e.g., first name, last name, ID number, date of birth).        
    column or field A column in a database table. Columns represent each category of data contained in a record (e.g., first name, last name, ID number, date of birth).        
    compile Step in which program code written in a language that humans can more easily understand, is then converted into a form (expressed in patterns of ones and zeros) that can be understood and executed by a microprocessor. Programmers using conventional programming languages must compile their software before making it available for execution.        
    compile Step in which program code written in a language that humans can more easily understand, is then converted into a form (expressed in patterns of ones and zeros) that can be understood and executed by a microprocessor. Programmers using conventional programming languages must compile their software before making it available for execution.        
    Complementary benefits Products or services that add additional value to the primary product or service that makes up a network.        
    Complementary benefits Products or services that add additional value to the primary product or service that makes up a network.        
    compliance Ensuring that an organization’s systems operate within required legal constraints, and industry and organizational obligations        
    compliance Ensuring that an organization’s systems operate within required legal constraints, and industry and organizational obligations        
    congestion effects When increasing numbers of users lower the value of a product or service.        
    congestion effects When increasing numbers of users lower the value of a product or service.        
    content adjacency Concern that an advertisement will run near offensive material, embarrassing an advertiser and/or degrading their products or brands.        
    content adjacency Concern that an advertisement will run near offensive material, embarrassing an advertiser and/or degrading their products or brands.        
    content adjacency problems A situation where ads appear alongside text the advertiser would like to avoid.        
    content adjacency problems A situation where ads appear alongside text the advertiser would like to avoid.        
    content delivery networks (CDN) Systems distributed throughout the Internet (or other network) that help to improve the delivery (and hence loading) speeds of Web pages and other media, typically by spreading access across multiple sites located closer to users. Akamai is the largest CDN, helping firms like CNN and MTV quickly deliver photos, video, and other media worldwide.        
    content delivery networks (CDN) Systems distributed throughout the Internet (or other network) that help to improve the delivery (and hence loading) speeds of Web pages and other media, typically by spreading access across multiple sites located closer to users. Akamai is the largest CDN, helping firms like CNN and MTV quickly deliver photos, video, and other media worldwide.        
    contract manufacturing Outsourcing production to third-party firms. Firms that use contract manufacturers don’t own the plants or directly employ the workers who produce the requested goods.        
    contract manufacturing Outsourcing production to third-party firms. Firms that use contract manufacturers don’t own the plants or directly employ the workers who produce the requested goods.        
    cookies A line of identifying text, assigned and retrieved by a given Web server and stored by your browser.        
    cookies A line of identifying text, assigned and retrieved by a given Web server and stored by your browser.        
    cost-per-click (CPC) The maximum amount of money an advertiser is willing to pay for each click on their ad.        
    cost-per-click (CPC) The maximum amount of money an advertiser is willing to pay for each click on their ad.        
    CPM Cost per thousand impressions (the M representing the roman numeral for one thousand).        
    CPM Cost per thousand impressions (the M representing the roman numeral for one thousand).        
    cross-side exchange benefit When an increase in the number of users on one side of the market (console owners, for example) creates a rise in the other side (software developers).        
    cross-side exchange benefit When an increase in the number of users on one side of the market (console owners, for example) creates a rise in the other side (software developers).        
    crowdsourcing The act of taking a job traditionally performed by a designated agent (usually an employee) and outsourcing it to an undefined generally large group of people in the form of an open call.        
    crowdsourcing The act of taking a job traditionally performed by a designated agent (usually an employee) and outsourcing it to an undefined generally large group of people in the form of an open call.        
    crowdsourcing The act of taking a job traditionally performed by a designated agent (usually an employee) and outsourcing it to an undefined generally large group of people in the form of an open call.        
    crowdsourcing The act of taking a job traditionally performed by a designated agent (usually an employee) and outsourcing it to an undefined generally large group of people in the form of an open call.        
    customer lifetime value (CLV) The present value of the likely future income stream generated by an individual purchaser.        
    customer lifetime value (CLV) The present value of the likely future income stream generated by an individual purchaser.        
    cybersquatting Acquiring a domain name that refers to a firm, individual, product, or trademark, with the goal of exploiting it for financial gain. The practice is illegal in many nations, and ICANN has a dispute resolution mechanism that in some circumstances can strip cybersquatters of registered domains.        
    cybersquatting Acquiring a domain name that refers to a firm, individual, product, or trademark, with the goal of exploiting it for financial gain. The practice is illegal in many nations, and ICANN has a dispute resolution mechanism that in some circumstances can strip cybersquatters of registered domains.        
    dark Web Internet content that can’t be indexed by Google and other search engines.        
    dark Web Internet content that can’t be indexed by Google and other search engines.        
    dark Web Internet content that can’t be indexed by Google and other search engines.        
    dark Web Internet content that can’t be indexed by Google and other search engines.        
    Dashboards A heads-up display of critical indicators that allow managers to get a graphical glance at key performance metrics.        
    Dashboards A heads-up display of critical indicators that allow managers to get a graphical glance at key performance metrics.        
    data aggregators Firms that collect and resell data.        
    data aggregators Firms that collect and resell data.        
    data cube A special database used to store data in OLAP reporting.        
    data cube A special database used to store data in OLAP reporting.        
    data mart A database or databases focused on addressing the concerns of a specific problem (e.g., increasing customer retention, improving product quality) or business unit (e.g., marketing, engineering).        
    data mart A database or databases focused on addressing the concerns of a specific problem (e.g., increasing customer retention, improving product quality) or business unit (e.g., marketing, engineering).        
    Data mining The process of using computers to identify hidden patterns in, and to build models from, large data sets.        
    Data mining The process of using computers to identify hidden patterns in, and to build models from, large data sets.        
    database A single table or a collection of related tables.        
    database A single table or a collection of related tables.        
    database administrator (DBA) Job title focused on directing, performing, or overseeing activities associated with a database or set of databases. These may include (but not necessarily be limited to): database design, creation, implementation, maintenance, backup and recovery, policy setting and enforcement, and security.        
    database administrator (DBA) Job title focused on directing, performing, or overseeing activities associated with a database or set of databases. These may include (but not necessarily be limited to): database design, creation, implementation, maintenance, backup and recovery, policy setting and enforcement, and security.        
    database management system (DBMS) Sometimes referred to as database software; software for creating, maintaining, and manipulating data.        
    database management system (DBMS) Sometimes referred to as database software; software for creating, maintaining, and manipulating data.        
    database management systems (DBMS) Sometimes called “databade software”; software for creating, maintaining, and manipulating data.        
    database management systems (DBMS) Sometimes called “databade software”; software for creating, maintaining, and manipulating data.        
    dense wave division multiplexing (DWDM) A technology that increases the transmission capacity (and hence speed) of fiber-optic cable. Transmissions using fiber are accomplished by transmitting light inside “glass” cables. In DWDM, the light inside fiber is split into different wavelengths in a way similar to how a prism splits light into different colors.        
    dense wave division multiplexing (DWDM) A technology that increases the transmission capacity (and hence speed) of fiber-optic cable. Transmissions using fiber are accomplished by transmitting light inside “glass” cables. In DWDM, the light inside fiber is split into different wavelengths in a way similar to how a prism splits light into different colors.        
    Digital subscriber line (DSL) Broadband technology that uses the wires of a local telephone network.        
    Digital subscriber line (DSL) Broadband technology that uses the wires of a local telephone network.        
    disintermediation Removing an organization from a firm’s distribution channel. Disintermediation collapses the path between supplier and customer.        
    disintermediation Removing an organization from a firm’s distribution channel. Disintermediation collapses the path between supplier and customer.        
    distributed computing A form of computing where systems in different locations communicate and collaborate to complete a task.        
    distributed computing A form of computing where systems in different locations communicate and collaborate to complete a task.        
    distributed denial of service (DDoS) An attack where a firm’s computer systems are flooded with thousands of seemingly legitimate requests, the sheer volume of which will slow or shut down the site’s use. DDoS attacks are often performed via botnets.        
    distributed denial of service (DDoS) An attack where a firm’s computer systems are flooded with thousands of seemingly legitimate requests, the sheer volume of which will slow or shut down the site’s use. DDoS attacks are often performed via botnets.        
    distribution channels The path through which products or services get to customers.        
    distribution channels The path through which products or services get to customers.        
    domain name service (DNS) Internet directory service that allows devices and services to be named and discoverable. The DNS, for example, helps your browser locate the appropriate computers when entering an address like http://finance.google.com.        
    domain name service (DNS) Internet directory service that allows devices and services to be named and discoverable. The DNS, for example, helps your browser locate the appropriate computers when entering an address like http://finance.google.com.        
    dumpster diving Combing through trash to identify valuable assets.        
    dumpster diving Combing through trash to identify valuable assets.        
    E-discovery The process of identifying and retrieving relevant electronic information to support litigation efforts.        
    E-discovery The process of identifying and retrieving relevant electronic information to support litigation efforts.        
    e-waste Discarded, often obsolete technology; also known as electronic waste.        
    e-waste Discarded, often obsolete technology; also known as electronic waste.        
    economies of scale When costs can be spread across increasing units of production or in serving multiple customers. Businesses that have favorable economies of scale (like many Internet firms) are sometimes referred to as being highly scalable.        
    economies of scale When costs can be spread across increasing units of production or in serving multiple customers. Businesses that have favorable economies of scale (like many Internet firms) are sometimes referred to as being highly scalable.        
    EDI (electronic data interchange) A set of standards for exchanging messages containing formatted data between computer applications.        
    EDI (electronic data interchange) A set of standards for exchanging messages containing formatted data between computer applications.        
    embassy In the context of social media, an established online presence where customers can reach and interact with the firm. An effective embassy approach uses a consistent firm name in all its social media properties.        
    embassy In the context of social media, an established online presence where customers can reach and interact with the firm. An effective embassy approach uses a consistent firm name in all its social media properties.        
    embedded systems Special-purpose software designed and included inside physical products (often on firmware). Embedded systems help make devices “smarter,” sharing usage information, helping diagnose problems, indicating maintenance schedules, providing alerts, or enabling devices to take orders from other systems.        
    embedded systems Special-purpose software designed and included inside physical products (often on firmware). Embedded systems help make devices “smarter,” sharing usage information, helping diagnose problems, indicating maintenance schedules, providing alerts, or enabling devices to take orders from other systems.        
    engagement ads Promotion technique popular with social media that attempts to get consumers to interact with an ad, then shares that action with friends.        
    engagement ads Promotion technique popular with social media that attempts to get consumers to interact with an ad, then shares that action with friends.        
    enterprise resource planning (ERP) A software package that integrates the many functions (accounting, finance, inventory management, human resources, etc.) of a business.        
    enterprise resource planning (ERP) A software package that integrates the many functions (accounting, finance, inventory management, human resources, etc.) of a business.        
    Enterprise software Applications that address the needs of multiple users throughout an organization or work group.        
    Enterprise software Applications that address the needs of multiple users throughout an organization or work group.        
    envelopment When one market attempts to conquer a new market by making it a subset, component, or feature of its primary offering.        
    envelopment When one market attempts to conquer a new market by making it a subset, component, or feature of its primary offering.        
    Expert systems AI systems that leverages rules or examples to perform a task in a way that mimics applied human expertise.        
    Expert systems AI systems that leverages rules or examples to perform a task in a way that mimics applied human expertise.        
    extensible markup language (XML) A tagging language that can be used to identify data fields made available for use by other applications. Most APIs and Web services send messages where the data exchanged is wrapped in identifying XML tags.        
    extensible markup language (XML) A tagging language that can be used to identify data fields made available for use by other applications. Most APIs and Web services send messages where the data exchanged is wrapped in identifying XML tags.        
    fast follower problem Exists when savvy rivals watch a pioneer’s efforts, learn from their successes and missteps, then enter the market quickly with a comparable or superior product at a lower cost before the first mover can dominate.        
    fast follower problem Exists when savvy rivals watch a pioneer’s efforts, learn from their successes and missteps, then enter the market quickly with a comparable or superior product at a lower cost before the first mover can dominate.        
    fault tolerance The ability of a system to continue operation even if a component fails.        
    fault tolerance The ability of a system to continue operation even if a component fails.        
    fault-tolerant Capable of continuing operation even if a component fails.        
    fault-tolerant Capable of continuing operation even if a component fails.        
    Fiber to the home (FTTH) Broadband service provided via light-transmitting fiber-optic cables.        
    Fiber to the home (FTTH) Broadband service provided via light-transmitting fiber-optic cables.        
    firmware Software stored on nonvolatile memory chips (as opposed to being stored on devices such as hard drives or removable discs). Despite the seemingly permanent nature of firmware, many products allow for firmware to be upgraded online or by connecting to another device.        
    firmware Software stored on nonvolatile memory chips (as opposed to being stored on devices such as hard drives or removable discs). Despite the seemingly permanent nature of firmware, many products allow for firmware to be upgraded online or by connecting to another device.        
    fixed costs A cost that does not vary according to production volume.        
    fixed costs A cost that does not vary according to production volume.        
    Folksonomies Keyword-based classification systems created by user communities (also known as social tagging).        
    Folksonomies Keyword-based classification systems created by user communities (also known as social tagging).        
    free rider problem When others take advantage of a user or service without providing any sort of reciprocal benefit.        
    free rider problem When others take advantage of a user or service without providing any sort of reciprocal benefit.        
    free rider problem When others take advantage of a user or service without providing any sort of reciprocal benefit.        
    free rider problem When others take advantage of a user or service without providing any sort of reciprocal benefit.        
    FTP Application transfer protocol that is used to copy files from one computer to another.        
    FTP Application transfer protocol that is used to copy files from one computer to another.        
    Genetic algorithms Model building techniques where computers examine many potential solutions to a problem, iteratively modifying (mutating) various mathematical models, and comparing the mutated models to search for a best alternative.        
    Genetic algorithms Model building techniques where computers examine many potential solutions to a problem, iteratively modifying (mutating) various mathematical models, and comparing the mutated models to search for a best alternative.        
    Geotargeting Identifying a user’s physical location (sometimes called geolocation) for the purpose of delivering tailored ads or other content.        
    Geotargeting Identifying a user’s physical location (sometimes called geolocation) for the purpose of delivering tailored ads or other content.        
    global positioning system (GPS) A network of satellites and supporting technologies used to identify a device’s physical location.        
    global positioning system (GPS) A network of satellites and supporting technologies used to identify a device’s physical location.        
    global positioning system (GPS) A network of satellites and supporting technologies used to identify a device’s physical location.        
    global positioning system (GPS) A network of satellites and supporting technologies used to identify a device’s physical location.        
    grid computing A type of computing that uses special software to enable several computers to work together on a common problem as if they were a massively parallel supercomputer.        
    grid computing A type of computing that uses special software to enable several computers to work together on a common problem as if they were a massively parallel supercomputer.        
    griefers Internet vandal and mischief maker; also sometimes referred to as a troll.        
    griefers Internet vandal and mischief maker; also sometimes referred to as a troll.        
    hack A term that may, depending on the context, refer to either 1) breaking into a computer system, or 2) a particularly clever solution.        
    hack A term that may, depending on the context, refer to either 1) breaking into a computer system, or 2) a particularly clever solution.        
    hacktivists A protester seeking to make a political point by leveraging technology tools, often through system infiltration, defacement, or damage.        
    hacktivists A protester seeking to make a political point by leveraging technology tools, often through system infiltration, defacement, or damage.        
    hardware clouds A cloud computing model in which a service provider makes computing resources such as hardware and storage, along with infrastructure management, available to a customer on an as-needed basis. The provider typically charges for specific resource usage rather than a flat rate. In the past, similar efforts have been described as utility computing, hosting, or even time sharing.        
    hardware clouds A cloud computing model in which a service provider makes computing resources such as hardware and storage, along with infrastructure management, available to a customer on an as-needed basis. The provider typically charges for specific resource usage rather than a flat rate. In the past, similar efforts have been described as utility computing, hosting, or even time sharing.        
    hash tags A method for organizing tweets where keywords are preceeded by the # character.        
    hash tags A method for organizing tweets where keywords are preceeded by the # character.        
    honeypots A seemingly tempting, but bogus target meant to draw hacking attempts. By monitoring infiltration attempts against a honeypot, organizations may gain insight into the identity of hackers and their techniques, and they can share this with partners and law enforcement.        
    honeypots A seemingly tempting, but bogus target meant to draw hacking attempts. By monitoring infiltration attempts against a honeypot, organizations may gain insight into the identity of hackers and their techniques, and they can share this with partners and law enforcement.        
    hypertext markup language Language used to compose Web pages.        
    hypertext markup language Language used to compose Web pages.        
    ICANN (Internet Corporation for Assigning Names and Numbers) Nonprofit organization responsible for managing the Internet’s domain and numbering systems.        
    ICANN (Internet Corporation for Assigning Names and Numbers) Nonprofit organization responsible for managing the Internet’s domain and numbering systems.        
    imitation-resistant value chain A way of doing business that competitors struggle to replicate and that frequently involves technology in a key enabling role.        
    imitation-resistant value chain A way of doing business that competitors struggle to replicate and that frequently involves technology in a key enabling role.        
    impressions Each time an ad is served to a user for viewing.        
    impressions Each time an ad is served to a user for viewing.        
    impressions Each time an ad is served to a user for viewing.        
    impressions Each time an ad is served to a user for viewing.        
    information asymmetry A decision situation where one party has more or better information than its counterparty.        
    information asymmetry A decision situation where one party has more or better information than its counterparty.        
    infrastructure as a service (IaaS) Where cloud providers offer services that include running the remote hardware and networking (i.e., the infrastructure), but client firms can choose software used (which may include operating systems, programming languages, databases, and other software packages). In this scenario the cloud firm usually manages the infrastructure (keeping the hardware and networking running), while the client has control over most other things (operating systems, storage, deployed applications, and perhaps even security and networking features like firewalls and security systems).        
    infrastructure as a service (IaaS) Where cloud providers offer services that include running the remote hardware and networking (i.e., the infrastructure), but client firms can choose software used (which may include operating systems, programming languages, databases, and other software packages). In this scenario the cloud firm usually manages the infrastructure (keeping the hardware and networking running), while the client has control over most other things (operating systems, storage, deployed applications, and perhaps even security and networking features like firewalls and security systems).        
    Internet Advertising Bureau (IAB) A nonprofit industry trade group for the interactive advertising industry. The IAB evaluates and recommends interactive advertising standards and practices and also conducts research, education, and legislative lobbying.        
    Internet Advertising Bureau (IAB) A nonprofit industry trade group for the interactive advertising industry. The IAB evaluates and recommends interactive advertising standards and practices and also conducts research, education, and legislative lobbying.        
    Internet service provider (ISP) An organization or firm that provides access to the Internet.        
    Internet service provider (ISP) An organization or firm that provides access to the Internet.        
    interpreted Languages where each line of written code is converted (by a software program, called an “interpreter”) for execution at run-time. Most scripting languages are interpreted languages. Many programmers also write Java applications to be interpreted by the Java Virtual Machine.        
    interpreted Languages where each line of written code is converted (by a software program, called an “interpreter”) for execution at run-time. Most scripting languages are interpreted languages. Many programmers also write Java applications to be interpreted by the Java Virtual Machine.        
    inventory turnover ratio The ratio of a company’s annual sales to its inventory.        
    inventory turnover ratio The ratio of a company’s annual sales to its inventory.        
    inventory turns Sometimes referred to as inventory turnover, stock turns, or stock turnover. It is the number of times inventory is sold or used during the course of a year. A higher figure means that a firm is selling products quickly.        
    inventory turns Sometimes referred to as inventory turnover, stock turns, or stock turnover. It is the number of times inventory is sold or used during the course of a year. A higher figure means that a firm is selling products quickly.        
    IP address A value used to identify a device that is connected to the Internet. IP addresses are usually expressed as four numbers (from 0 to 255), separated by periods.        
    IP address A value used to identify a device that is connected to the Internet. IP addresses are usually expressed as four numbers (from 0 to 255), separated by periods.        
    IP address A value used to identify a device that is connected to the Internet. IP addresses are usually expressed as four numbers (from 0 to 255), separated by periods.        
    IP address A value used to identify a device that is connected to the Internet. IP addresses are usually expressed as four numbers (from 0 to 255), separated by periods.        
    Java A programming language, initially developed by Sun Microsystems, designed to provide true platform independence (“write once, run anywhere”) for application developers. In most cases, Java apps are developed to be executed by a Java Virtual Machine—an interpreting layer that translates code as it executes, into the format required by the operating system and microprocessor. Without Java, application developers have to write and compile software to execute natively by a specific operating system / microprocessor combination (e.g., Windows/Intel, Linux PowerPC, Mac/Intel, Linux/Intel).        
    Java A programming language, initially developed by Sun Microsystems, designed to provide true platform independence (“write once, run anywhere”) for application developers. In most cases, Java apps are developed to be executed by a Java Virtual Machine—an interpreting layer that translates code as it executes, into the format required by the operating system and microprocessor. Without Java, application developers have to write and compile software to execute natively by a specific operating system / microprocessor combination (e.g., Windows/Intel, Linux PowerPC, Mac/Intel, Linux/Intel).        
    key Code that unlocks encryption.        
    key Code that unlocks encryption.        
    keyword advertising Advertisements that are targeted based on a user’s query.        
    keyword advertising Advertisements that are targeted based on a user’s query.        
    knowledge Insight derived from experience and expertise.        
    knowledge Insight derived from experience and expertise.        
    LAMP An acronym standing for Linux, the Apache Web server software, the MySQL database, and any of several programming languages that start with P (e.g., Perl, Python, or PHP).        
    LAMP An acronym standing for Linux, the Apache Web server software, the MySQL database, and any of several programming languages that start with P (e.g., Perl, Python, or PHP).        
    landing page The Web page displayed when a user clicks on an advertisement.        
    landing page The Web page displayed when a user clicks on an advertisement.        
    last mile Technologies that connect end users to the Internet. The last-mile problem refers to the fact that these connections are usually the slowest part of the network.        
    last mile Technologies that connect end users to the Internet. The last-mile problem refers to the fact that these connections are usually the slowest part of the network.        
    legacy systems Older information systems that are often incompatible with other systems, technologies, and ways of conducting business. Incompatible legacy systems can be a major roadblock to turning data into information, and they can inhibit firm agility, holding back operational and strategic initiatives.        
    legacy systems Older information systems that are often incompatible with other systems, technologies, and ways of conducting business. Incompatible legacy systems can be a major roadblock to turning data into information, and they can inhibit firm agility, holding back operational and strategic initiatives.        
    link fraud Also called “spamdexing” or “link farming.” The process of creating a series of bogus Web sites, all linking back to the pages one is trying to promote.        
    link fraud Also called “spamdexing” or “link farming.” The process of creating a series of bogus Web sites, all linking back to the pages one is trying to promote.        
    Linux An open source software operating system.        
    Linux An open source software operating system.        
    localization Adapting products and services for different languages and regional differences.        
    localization Adapting products and services for different languages and regional differences.        
    logistics Coordinating and enabling the flow of goods, people, information, and other resources among locations.        
    logistics Coordinating and enabling the flow of goods, people, information, and other resources among locations.        
    long tail In this context, refers to an extremely large selection of content or products. The long tail is a phenomenon whereby firms can make money by offering a near-limitless selection.        
    long tail In this context, refers to an extremely large selection of content or products. The long tail is a phenomenon whereby firms can make money by offering a near-limitless selection.        
    low latency Low delay.        
    low latency Low delay.        
    loyalty card Systems that provide rewards and usage incentives, typically in exchange for a method that provides a more detailed tracking and recording of customer activity. In addition to enhancing data collection, loyalty cards can represent a significant switching cost.        
    loyalty card Systems that provide rewards and usage incentives, typically in exchange for a method that provides a more detailed tracking and recording of customer activity. In addition to enhancing data collection, loyalty cards can represent a significant switching cost.        
    marginal cost The cost of producing one more unit of a product.        
    marginal cost The cost of producing one more unit of a product.        
    marginal costs The costs associated with each additional unit produced.        
    marginal costs The costs associated with each additional unit produced.        
    market capitalization (market cap) The value of a firm calculated by multiplying its share price by the number of shares.        
    market capitalization (market cap) The value of a firm calculated by multiplying its share price by the number of shares.        
    Mash-ups The combination of two or more technologies or data feeds into a single, integrated tool.        
    Mash-ups The combination of two or more technologies or data feeds into a single, integrated tool.        
    massively parallel Computers designed with many microprocessors that work together, simultaneously, to solve problems.        
    massively parallel Computers designed with many microprocessors that work together, simultaneously, to solve problems.        
    microprocessor The part of the computer that executes the instructions of a computer program.        
    microprocessor The part of the computer that executes the instructions of a computer program.        
    Moore’s Law Chip performance per dollar doubles every eighteen months.        
    Moore’s Law Chip performance per dollar doubles every eighteen months.        
    multicore microprocessors Microprocessors with two or more (typically lower power) calculating processor cores on the same piece of silicon.        
    multicore microprocessors Microprocessors with two or more (typically lower power) calculating processor cores on the same piece of silicon.        
    n00b Written with two zeros, pronounced “newb.” Geek-slang (leet speak) derogatory term for an uninformed or unskilled person.        
    n00b Written with two zeros, pronounced “newb.” Geek-slang (leet speak) derogatory term for an uninformed or unskilled person.        
    NAT (network address translation) A technique often used to conserve IP addresses by maps devices on a private network to single Internet-connected device that acts on their behalf.        
    NAT (network address translation) A technique often used to conserve IP addresses by maps devices on a private network to single Internet-connected device that acts on their behalf.        
    network effect Also known as Metcalfe’s Law, or network externalities. When the value of a product or service increases as its number of users expands.        
    network effect Also known as Metcalfe’s Law, or network externalities. When the value of a product or service increases as its number of users expands.        
    network effects Also known as Metcalfe’s Law, or network externalities. When the value of a product or service increases as its number of users expands.        
    network effects Also known as Metcalfe’s Law, or network externalities. When the value of a product or service increases as its number of users expands.        
    Network effects Also known as Metcalfe’s Law, or network externalities. When the value of a product or service increases as its number of users expands.        
    Network effects Also known as Metcalfe’s Law, or network externalities. When the value of a product or service increases as its number of users expands.        
    neural networks An AI system that examines data and hunts down and exposes patterns, in order to build models to exploit findings.        
    neural networks An AI system that examines data and hunts down and exposes patterns, in order to build models to exploit findings.        
    neutral point of view (NPOV) An editorial style that is free of bias and opinion. Wikipedia norms dictate that all articles must be written in NPOV.        
    neutral point of view (NPOV) An editorial style that is free of bias and opinion. Wikipedia norms dictate that all articles must be written in NPOV.        
    NFC Near field communication; a short-range, wireless communication standard. NFC is being used to support contactless payment and transactions over NFC-equipped mobile devices.        
    NFC Near field communication; a short-range, wireless communication standard. NFC is being used to support contactless payment and transactions over NFC-equipped mobile devices.        
    nonvolatile memory Storage that retains data even when powered down (such as flash memory, hard disk, or DVD storage).        
    nonvolatile memory Storage that retains data even when powered down (such as flash memory, hard disk, or DVD storage).        
    oligopoly A market dominated by a small number of powerful sellers.        
    oligopoly A market dominated by a small number of powerful sellers.        
    online reputation management The process of tracking and responding to online mentions of a product, organization, or individual. Services supporting online reputation management range from free Google Alerts to more sophisticated services that blend computer-based and human monitoring of multiple media channels.        
    online reputation management The process of tracking and responding to online mentions of a product, organization, or individual. Services supporting online reputation management range from free Google Alerts to more sophisticated services that blend computer-based and human monitoring of multiple media channels.        
    open source software (OSS) Software that is free and whose code can be accessed and potentially modified by anyone.        
    open source software (OSS) Software that is free and whose code can be accessed and potentially modified by anyone.        
    operations The organizational activities that are required to produce goods or services. Operations activities can involve the development, execution, control, maintenance, and improvement of an organization’s service and manufacturing procedures.        
    operations The organizational activities that are required to produce goods or services. Operations activities can involve the development, execution, control, maintenance, and improvement of an organization’s service and manufacturing procedures.        
    opt-in Program (typically a marketing effort) that requires customer consent. This program is contrasted with opt-out programs, which enroll all customers by default.        
    opt-in Program (typically a marketing effort) that requires customer consent. This program is contrasted with opt-out programs, which enroll all customers by default.        
    opt-in Program (typically a marketing effort) that requires customer consent. This program is contrasted with opt-out programs, which enroll all customers by default.        
    opt-in Program (typically a marketing effort) that requires customer consent. This program is contrasted with opt-out programs, which enroll all customers by default.        
    opt-out Programs that enroll all customers by default, but that allow consumers to discontinue participation if they want to.        
    opt-out Programs that enroll all customers by default, but that allow consumers to discontinue participation if they want to.        
    optical fiber line A high-speed glass or plastic-lined networking cable used in telecommunications.        
    optical fiber line A high-speed glass or plastic-lined networking cable used in telecommunications.        
    over-engineer Build a model with so many variables that the solution arrived at might only work on the subset of data you’ve used to create it.        
    over-engineer Build a model with so many variables that the solution arrived at might only work on the subset of data you’ve used to create it.        
    packets (or datagrams) A unit of data forwarded by a network. All Internet transmissions—URLs, Web pages, e-mails—are divided into one or more packets.        
    packets (or datagrams) A unit of data forwarded by a network. All Internet transmissions—URLs, Web pages, e-mails—are divided into one or more packets.        
    PageRank Algorithm developed by Google cofounder Larry Page to rank Web sites.        
    PageRank Algorithm developed by Google cofounder Larry Page to rank Web sites.        
    peer production When users collaboratively work to create content, products, and services. Includes social media sites, open source software, and peer-produced services, such as Skype and BitTorrent, where the participation of users provide the infrastructure and computational resources that enable the service.        
    peer production When users collaboratively work to create content, products, and services. Includes social media sites, open source software, and peer-produced services, such as Skype and BitTorrent, where the participation of users provide the infrastructure and computational resources that enable the service.        
    peering When separate ISPs link their networks to swap traffic on the Internet.        
    peering When separate ISPs link their networks to swap traffic on the Internet.        
    personal digital assistants (PDAs) Handheld computing devices meant largely for mobile use outside an office setting. PDAs were initially (nonphone) handheld computing devices, but sophisticated computing capabilities have now been integrated into other mobile device classes, such as smartphones and tablets.        
    personal digital assistants (PDAs) Handheld computing devices meant largely for mobile use outside an office setting. PDAs were initially (nonphone) handheld computing devices, but sophisticated computing capabilities have now been integrated into other mobile device classes, such as smartphones and tablets.        
    Phishing A con executed using technology, typically targeted at acquiring sensitive information or tricking someone into installing malicious software.        
    Phishing A con executed using technology, typically targeted at acquiring sensitive information or tricking someone into installing malicious software.        
    platform Products and services that allow for the development and integration of software products and other complementary goods. Windows, the iPhone, the Wii, and the standards that allow users to create Facebook apps are all platforms.        
    platform Products and services that allow for the development and integration of software products and other complementary goods. Windows, the iPhone, the Wii, and the standards that allow users to create Facebook apps are all platforms.        
    platform as a service (PaaS) Where cloud providers offer services that include the hardware, operating system, tools, and hosting (i.e., the platform) that its customers use to build their own applications on the provider’s infrastructure. In this scenario the cloud firm usually manages the platform (hosting, hardware, and supporting software), while the client has control over the creation and deployment of their appliation.        
    platform as a service (PaaS) Where cloud providers offer services that include the hardware, operating system, tools, and hosting (i.e., the platform) that its customers use to build their own applications on the provider’s infrastructure. In this scenario the cloud firm usually manages the platform (hosting, hardware, and supporting software), while the client has control over the creation and deployment of their appliation.        
    platforms Products and services that allow for the development and integration of software products and other complementary goods. Windows, the iPhone, the Wii, and the standards that allow users to create Facebook apps are all platforms.        
    platforms Products and services that allow for the development and integration of software products and other complementary goods. Windows, the iPhone, the Wii, and the standards that allow users to create Facebook apps are all platforms.        
    Podcasts Digital audio or video files served as a series of programs or a multimedia blog.        
    Podcasts Digital audio or video files served as a series of programs or a multimedia blog.        
    point-of-sale (POS) system Transaction processing systems that capture customer purchases. Cash registers and store checkout systems are examples of point-of-sale systems. These systems are critical for capturing sales data and are usually linked to inventory systems to subtract out any sold items.        
    point-of-sale (POS) system Transaction processing systems that capture customer purchases. Cash registers and store checkout systems are examples of point-of-sale systems. These systems are critical for capturing sales data and are usually linked to inventory systems to subtract out any sold items.        
    Porter’s five forces Also known as Industry and Competitive Analysis. A framework considering the interplay between (1) the intensity of rivalry among existing competitors, (2) the threat of new entrants, (3) the threat of substitute goods or services, (4) the bargaining power of buyers, and (5) the bargaining power of suppliers.        
    Porter’s five forces Also known as Industry and Competitive Analysis. A framework considering the interplay between (1) the intensity of rivalry among existing competitors, (2) the threat of new entrants, (3) the threat of substitute goods or services, (4) the bargaining power of buyers, and (5) the bargaining power of suppliers.        
    prediction market Polling a diverse crowd and aggregating opinions in order to form a forecast of an eventual outcome.        
    prediction market Polling a diverse crowd and aggregating opinions in order to form a forecast of an eventual outcome.        
    price elasticity The rate at which the demand for a product or service fluctuates with price change. Goods and services that are highly price elastic (e.g., most consumer electronics) see demand spike as prices drop, whereas goods and services that are less price elastic are less responsive to price change (think heart surgery).        
    price elasticity The rate at which the demand for a product or service fluctuates with price change. Goods and services that are highly price elastic (e.g., most consumer electronics) see demand spike as prices drop, whereas goods and services that are less price elastic are less responsive to price change (think heart surgery).        
    private clouds Pools of computing resources that reside inside an organization and that can be served up for specific tasks as need arrives.        
    private clouds Pools of computing resources that reside inside an organization and that can be served up for specific tasks as need arrives.        
    programming language Provides the standards, syntax, statements, and instructions for writing computer software.        
    programming language Provides the standards, syntax, statements, and instructions for writing computer software.        
    protocol Enables communication by defining the format of data and rules for exchange.        
    protocol Enables communication by defining the format of data and rules for exchange.        
    proxy servers A third-party computer that passes traffic to and from a specific address without revealing the address of the connected user.        
    proxy servers A third-party computer that passes traffic to and from a specific address without revealing the address of the connected user.        
    public key encryption A two key system used for securing electronic transmissions. One key distributed publicly is used to encrypt (lock) data, but it cannot unlock data. Unlocking can only be performed with the private key. The private key also cannot be reverse engineered from the public key. By distributing public keys, but keeping the private key, Internet services can ensure transmissions to their site are secure.        
    public key encryption A two key system used for securing electronic transmissions. One key distributed publicly is used to encrypt (lock) data, but it cannot unlock data. Unlocking can only be performed with the private key. The private key also cannot be reverse engineered from the public key. By distributing public keys, but keeping the private key, Internet services can ensure transmissions to their site are secure.        
    radio frequency identification (RFID) tags Small chip-based tags that wirelessly emit a unique identifying code for the item that they are attached to. Think of RFID systems as a next-generation bar code.        
    radio frequency identification (RFID) tags Small chip-based tags that wirelessly emit a unique identifying code for the item that they are attached to. Think of RFID systems as a next-generation bar code.        
    relational databases The most common standard for expressing databases, whereby tables (files) are related based on common keys.        
    relational databases The most common standard for expressing databases, whereby tables (files) are related based on common keys.        
    resource-based view of competitive advantage The strategic thinking approach suggesting that if a firm is to maintain sustainable competitive advantage, it must control an exploitable resource, or set of resources, that have four critical characteristics. These resources must be (1) valuable, (2) rare, (3) imperfectly imitable, and (4) nonsubstitutable.        
    resource-based view of competitive advantage The strategic thinking approach suggesting that if a firm is to maintain sustainable competitive advantage, it must control an exploitable resource, or set of resources, that have four critical characteristics. These resources must be (1) valuable, (2) rare, (3) imperfectly imitable, and (4) nonsubstitutable.        
    return on investment (ROI) The amount earned from an expenditure.        
    return on investment (ROI) The amount earned from an expenditure.        
    rich media Content that is more complex than simple text. The term can refer to images, animation, audio, and video.        
    rich media Content that is more complex than simple text. The term can refer to images, animation, audio, and video.        
    roll back The ability to revert a wiki page to a prior version. This is useful for restoring earlier work in the event of a posting error, inaccuracy, or vandalism.        
    roll back The ability to revert a wiki page to a prior version. This is useful for restoring earlier work in the event of a posting error, inaccuracy, or vandalism.        
    routers A computing device that connects networks and exchanges data between them.        
    routers A computing device that connects networks and exchanges data between them.        
    row or record A row in a database table. Records represent a single instance of whatever the table keeps track of (e.g., student, faculty, course title).        
    row or record A row in a database table. Records represent a single instance of whatever the table keeps track of (e.g., student, faculty, course title).        
    RSS reader A tool for subscribing to and accessing RSS feeds. Most e-mail programs and Web browsers can also act as RSS readers. There are also many Web sites (including Google Reader) that allow users to subscribe to and read RSS feeds.        
    RSS reader A tool for subscribing to and accessing RSS feeds. Most e-mail programs and Web browsers can also act as RSS readers. There are also many Web sites (including Google Reader) that allow users to subscribe to and read RSS feeds.        
    same-side exchange benefits Benefits derived by interaction among members of a single class of participant (e.g., the exchange value when increasing numbers of IM users gain the ability to message each other).        
    same-side exchange benefits Benefits derived by interaction among members of a single class of participant (e.g., the exchange value when increasing numbers of IM users gain the ability to message each other).        
    Sarbanes-Oxley Act Also known as Sarbox or SOX; U.S. legislation enacted in the wake of the accounting scandals of the early 2000s. The act raises executive and board responsibility and ties criminal penalties to certain accounting and financial violations. Although often criticized, SOX is also seen as raising stakes for mismanagement and misdeeds related to a firm’s accounting practices.        
    Scalability Ability to either handle increasing workloads or to be easily expanded to manage workload increases. In a software context, systems that aren’t scalable often require significant rewrites or the purchase or development of entirely new systems.        
    Scalability Ability to either handle increasing workloads or to be easily expanded to manage workload increases. In a software context, systems that aren’t scalable often require significant rewrites or the purchase or development of entirely new systems.        
    search engine marketing (SEM) The practice of designing, running and optimizing search engine ad campaigns.        
    search engine marketing (SEM) The practice of designing, running and optimizing search engine ad campaigns.        
    search engine optimization (SEO) The process of improving a page’s organic search results.        
    search engine optimization (SEO) The process of improving a page’s organic search results.        
    security focused Also known as “hardened.” Term used to describe technology products that contain particularly strong security features.        
    security focused Also known as “hardened.” Term used to describe technology products that contain particularly strong security features.        
    semantic Web Sites that wrap data in invisible tags that can be recognized by search engines, analysis tools, and other services to make it easier for computer programs to accurately categorize, compare, and present this information.        
    semantic Web Sites that wrap data in invisible tags that can be recognized by search engines, analysis tools, and other services to make it easier for computer programs to accurately categorize, compare, and present this information.        
    semiconductors A substance such as silicon dioxide used inside most computer chips that is capable of enabling as well as inhibiting the flow of electricity. From a managerial perspective, when someone refers to semiconductors, they are talking about computer chips, and the semiconductor industry is the chip business.        
    semiconductors A substance such as silicon dioxide used inside most computer chips that is capable of enabling as well as inhibiting the flow of electricity. From a managerial perspective, when someone refers to semiconductors, they are talking about computer chips, and the semiconductor industry is the chip business.        
    server A program that fulfills the requests of a client.        
    server A program that fulfills the requests of a client.        
    server farm A massive network of computer servers running software to coordinate their collective use. Server farms provide the infrastructure backbone to SaaS and hardware cloud efforts, as well as many large-scale Internet services.        
    server farm A massive network of computer servers running software to coordinate their collective use. Server farms provide the infrastructure backbone to SaaS and hardware cloud efforts, as well as many large-scale Internet services.        
    server farms A massive network of computer servers running software to coordinate their collective use. Server farms provide the infrastructure backbone to SaaS and hardware cloud efforts, as well as many large-scale Internet services.        
    server farms A massive network of computer servers running software to coordinate their collective use. Server farms provide the infrastructure backbone to SaaS and hardware cloud efforts, as well as many large-scale Internet services.        
    server farms A massive network of computer servers running software to coordinate their collective use. Server farms provide the infrastructure backbone to SaaS and hardware cloud efforts, as well as many large-scale Internet services.        
    server farms A massive network of computer servers running software to coordinate their collective use. Server farms provide the infrastructure backbone to SaaS and hardware cloud efforts, as well as many large-scale Internet services.        
    service level agreement (SLA) A negotiated agreement between the customer and the vendor. The SLA may specify the levels of availability, serviceability, performance, operation, or other commitment requirements.        
    service level agreement (SLA) A negotiated agreement between the customer and the vendor. The SLA may specify the levels of availability, serviceability, performance, operation, or other commitment requirements.        
    service-oriented architecture (SOA) A robust set of Web services built around an organizations processes and procedures.        
    service-oriented architecture (SOA) A robust set of Web services built around an organizations processes and procedures.        
    short Short selling is an attempt to profit from a falling stock price. Short sellers sell shares they don’t own with an obligation of later repayment. They do so in the hope that the price of sold shares will fall. They then repay share debt with shares purchased at a lower price and pocket the difference (spread) between initial share price and repayment price.        
    short Short selling is an attempt to profit from a falling stock price. Short sellers sell shares they don’t own with an obligation of later repayment. They do so in the hope that the price of sold shares will fall. They then repay share debt with shares purchased at a lower price and pocket the difference (spread) between initial share price and repayment price.        
    shoulder surfing Gaining compromising information through observation (as in looking over someone’s shoulder).        
    shoulder surfing Gaining compromising information through observation (as in looking over someone’s shoulder).        
    silicon wafer A thin, circular slice of material used to create semiconductor devices. Hundreds of chips may be etched on a single wafer, where they are eventually cut out for individual packaging.        
    silicon wafer A thin, circular slice of material used to create semiconductor devices. Hundreds of chips may be etched on a single wafer, where they are eventually cut out for individual packaging.        
    SMART The social media awareness and response team. A group tasked with creating policies and providing support, training, guidance, and development expertise for and monitoring of a firm’s social media efforts.        
    SMART The social media awareness and response team. A group tasked with creating policies and providing support, training, guidance, and development expertise for and monitoring of a firm’s social media efforts.        
    SMS A text messaging standard used by many mobile phones.        
    SMS A text messaging standard used by many mobile phones.        
    social graph The global mapping of users and organizations, and how they are connected.        
    social graph The global mapping of users and organizations, and how they are connected.        
    Social networks An online community that allows users to establish a personal profile and communicate with others. Large public social networks include MySpace, Facebook, LinkedIn, and Google’s Orkut.        
    Social networks An online community that allows users to establish a personal profile and communicate with others. Large public social networks include MySpace, Facebook, LinkedIn, and Google’s Orkut.        
    software A computer program or a collection of programs. It is a precise set of instructions that tells hardware what to do.        
    software A computer program or a collection of programs. It is a precise set of instructions that tells hardware what to do.        
    solid state electronics Semiconductor-based devices. Solid state components often suffer fewer failures and require less energy than mechanical counterparts because they have no moving parts. RAM, flash memory and microprocessors are solid state devices. Hard drives are not.        
    solid state electronics Semiconductor-based devices. Solid state components often suffer fewer failures and require less energy than mechanical counterparts because they have no moving parts. RAM, flash memory and microprocessors are solid state devices. Hard drives are not.        
    spiders, Web crawlers, software robots Software that traverses available Web links in an attempt to perform a given task. Search engines use spiders to discover documents for indexing and retrieval.        
    spiders, Web crawlers, software robots Software that traverses available Web links in an attempt to perform a given task. Search engines use spiders to discover documents for indexing and retrieval.        
    spoofed Term used in security to refer to forging or disguising the origin or identity. E-mail transmissions and packets that have been altered to seem as if they came from another source are referred to as being “spoofed.”        
    spoofed Term used in security to refer to forging or disguising the origin or identity. E-mail transmissions and packets that have been altered to seem as if they came from another source are referred to as being “spoofed.”        
    staying power The long-term viability of a product or service.        
    staying power The long-term viability of a product or service.        
    straddling Attempts to occupy more than one position, while failing to match the benefits of a more efficient, singularly focused rival.        
    straddling Attempts to occupy more than one position, while failing to match the benefits of a more efficient, singularly focused rival.        
    strategic positioning Performing different tasks than rivals, or the same tasks in a different way.        
    strategic positioning Performing different tasks than rivals, or the same tasks in a different way.        
    structured query language A language for creating and manipulating databases. SQL is by far the most common database standard in use today, and is supported by many commercial and open source products.        
    structured query language A language for creating and manipulating databases. SQL is by far the most common database standard in use today, and is supported by many commercial and open source products.        
    Structured query language (SQL) A language used to create and manipulate databases.        
    Structured query language (SQL) A language used to create and manipulate databases.        
    Supercomputers Computers that are among the fastest of any in the world at the time of their introduction.        
    Supercomputers Computers that are among the fastest of any in the world at the time of their introduction.        
    sustainable competitive advantage Financial performance that consistently outperforms industry averages.        
    sustainable competitive advantage Financial performance that consistently outperforms industry averages.        
    switching costs The cost a consumer incurs when moving from one product to another. It can involve actual money spent (e.g., buying a new product) as well as investments in time, any data loss, and so forth.        
    switching costs The cost a consumer incurs when moving from one product to another. It can involve actual money spent (e.g., buying a new product) as well as investments in time, any data loss, and so forth.        
    switching costs The cost a consumer incurs when moving from one product to another. It can involve actual money spent (e.g., buying a new product) as well as investments in time, any data loss, and so forth.        
    switching costs The cost a consumer incurs when moving from one product to another. It can involve actual money spent (e.g., buying a new product) as well as investments in time, any data loss, and so forth.        
    Switching costs The cost a consumer incurs when moving from one product to another. It can involve actual money spent (e.g., buying a new product) as well as investments in time, any data loss, and so forth.        
    Switching costs The cost a consumer incurs when moving from one product to another. It can involve actual money spent (e.g., buying a new product) as well as investments in time, any data loss, and so forth.        
    table or file A list of data, arranged in columns (fields) and rows (records).        
    table or file A list of data, arranged in columns (fields) and rows (records).        
    taken private The process by which a publicly held company has its outstanding shares purchased by an individual or by a small group of individuals who wish to obtain complete ownership and control.        
    taken private The process by which a publicly held company has its outstanding shares purchased by an individual or by a small group of individuals who wish to obtain complete ownership and control.        
    TCO [total cost of ownership] An economic measure of the full cost of owning a product (typically computing hardware and/or software). TCO includes direct costs such as purchase price, plus indirect costs such as training, support, and maintenance.        
    TCO [total cost of ownership] An economic measure of the full cost of owning a product (typically computing hardware and/or software). TCO includes direct costs such as purchase price, plus indirect costs such as training, support, and maintenance.        
    technological leapfrogging Competing by offering a new technology that is so superior to existing offerings that the value overcomes the total resistance that older technologies might enjoy via exchange, switching cost, and complementary benefits.        
    technological leapfrogging Competing by offering a new technology that is so superior to existing offerings that the value overcomes the total resistance that older technologies might enjoy via exchange, switching cost, and complementary benefits.        
    The Osborne Effect When a firm preannounces a forthcoming product or service and experiences a sharp and detrimental drop in sales of current offerings as users wait for the new item.        
    The Osborne Effect When a firm preannounces a forthcoming product or service and experiences a sharp and detrimental drop in sales of current offerings as users wait for the new item.        
    third-party cookies Sometimes called “tracking cookies” and are served by ad networks or other customer profiling firms. Tracking cookies are used to identify users and record behavior across multiple Web sites.        
    third-party cookies Sometimes called “tracking cookies” and are served by ad networks or other customer profiling firms. Tracking cookies are used to identify users and record behavior across multiple Web sites.        
    total cost of ownership (TCO) All of the costs associated with the design, development, testing, implementation, documentation, training and maintenance of a software system.        
    total cost of ownership (TCO) All of the costs associated with the design, development, testing, implementation, documentation, training and maintenance of a software system.        
    total cost of ownership (TCO) All of the costs associated with the design, development, testing, implementation, documentation, training and maintenance of a software system.        
    total cost of ownership (TCO) All of the costs associated with the design, development, testing, implementation, documentation, training and maintenance of a software system.        
    transaction Some kind of business exchange.        
    transaction Some kind of business exchange.        
    UDP (user datagram protocol) Protocol that operates instead of TCP in applications where delivery speed is important and quality can be sacrificed.        
    UDP (user datagram protocol) Protocol that operates instead of TCP in applications where delivery speed is important and quality can be sacrificed.        
    URL Often used interchangeably with “Web address,” URLs identify resources on the Internet along with the application protocol need to retrieve it.        
    URL Often used interchangeably with “Web address,” URLs identify resources on the Internet along with the application protocol need to retrieve it.        
    user interface (UI) The mechanism through which users interact with a computing device. The UI includes elements of the graphical user interface (or GUI, pronounced “gooey”), such as windows, scroll bars, buttons, menus, and dialogue boxes; and can also include other forms of interaction, such as touch screens, motion sensing controllers, or tactile devices used by the visually impaired.        
    user interface (UI) The mechanism through which users interact with a computing device. The UI includes elements of the graphical user interface (or GUI, pronounced “gooey”), such as windows, scroll bars, buttons, menus, and dialogue boxes; and can also include other forms of interaction, such as touch screens, motion sensing controllers, or tactile devices used by the visually impaired.        
    value chain The “set of activities through which a product or service is created and delivered to customers.”        
    value chain The “set of activities through which a product or service is created and delivered to customers.”        
    value chain The set of activities through which a product or service is created and delivered to customers.        
    value chain The set of activities through which a product or service is created and delivered to customers.        
    vertical niches Sometimes referred to as vertical markets. Products and services designed to target a specific industry (e.g., pharmaceutical, legal, apparel retail).        
    vertical niches Sometimes referred to as vertical markets. Products and services designed to target a specific industry (e.g., pharmaceutical, legal, apparel retail).        
    viral In this context, information or applications that spread rapidly between users.        
    viral In this context, information or applications that spread rapidly between users.        
    viral marketing Leveraging consumers to promote a product or service.        
    viral marketing Leveraging consumers to promote a product or service.        
    virtual desktops When a firm runs an instance of a PC’s software on another machine and simply delivers the image of what’s executing to the remote device. Using virtualization, a single server can run dozens of PCs, simplifying backup, upgrade, security, and administration.        
    virtual desktops When a firm runs an instance of a PC’s software on another machine and simply delivers the image of what’s executing to the remote device. Using virtualization, a single server can run dozens of PCs, simplifying backup, upgrade, security, and administration.        
    virtualization A type of software that allows a single computer (or cluster of connected computers) to function as if it were several different computers, each running its own operating system and software. Virtualization software underpins most cloud computing efforts, and can make computing more efficient, cost-effective, and scalable.        
    virtualization A type of software that allows a single computer (or cluster of connected computers) to function as if it were several different computers, each running its own operating system and software. Virtualization software underpins most cloud computing efforts, and can make computing more efficient, cost-effective, and scalable.        
    virtualization A type of software that allows a single computer (or cluster of connected computers) to function as if it were several different computers, each running its own operating system and software. Virtualization software underpins most cloud computing efforts, and can make computing more efficient, cost-effective, and scalable.        
    virtualization A type of software that allows a single computer (or cluster of connected computers) to function as if it were several different computers, each running its own operating system and software. Virtualization software underpins most cloud computing efforts, and can make computing more efficient, cost-effective, and scalable.        
    voice over Internet protocol Transmission technologies that enable voice communications (phone calls) to take place over the Internet as well as private packet-switched networks.        
    voice over Internet protocol Transmission technologies that enable voice communications (phone calls) to take place over the Internet as well as private packet-switched networks.        
    walled garden A closed network or single set of services controlled by one dominant firm.        
    walled garden A closed network or single set of services controlled by one dominant firm.        
    walled gardens A closed network or single set of services controlled by one dominant firm. Term is often applied to mobile carriers that act as gatekeepers, screening out hardware providers and software services from their networks.        
    walled gardens A closed network or single set of services controlled by one dominant firm. Term is often applied to mobile carriers that act as gatekeepers, screening out hardware providers and software services from their networks.        
    Web 2.0 A term broadly referring to Internet services that foster collaboration and information sharing; characteristics that distinctly set “Web 2.0” efforts apart from the static, transaction-oriented Web sites of “Web 1.0.” The term is often applied to Web sites and Internet services that foster social media or other sorts of peer production.        
    Web 2.0 A term broadly referring to Internet services that foster collaboration and information sharing; characteristics that distinctly set “Web 2.0” efforts apart from the static, transaction-oriented Web sites of “Web 1.0.” The term is often applied to Web sites and Internet services that foster social media or other sorts of peer production.        
    Web hosting services A firm that provides hardware and services to run the Web sites of others.        
    Web hosting services A firm that provides hardware and services to run the Web sites of others.        
    Web services Small pieces of code that are accessed via the application server which permit interoperable machine-to-machine interaction over a network.        
    Web services Small pieces of code that are accessed via the application server which permit interoperable machine-to-machine interaction over a network.        
    whitelists Highly restrictive programs that permit communication only with approved entities and/or in an approved manner.        
    whitelists Highly restrictive programs that permit communication only with approved entities and/or in an approved manner.        
    Wi-Fi A term used to brand wireless local-area networking devices. Devices typically connect to an antenna-equipped base station or hotspot, which is then connected to the Internet. Wi-Fi devices use standards known as IEEE 802.11, and various version of this standard (e.g., b, g, n) may operate in different frequency bands and have access ranges.        
    Wi-Fi A term used to brand wireless local-area networking devices. Devices typically connect to an antenna-equipped base station or hotspot, which is then connected to the Internet. Wi-Fi devices use standards known as IEEE 802.11, and various version of this standard (e.g., b, g, n) may operate in different frequency bands and have access ranges.        
    Wi-Fi A term used to brand wireless local-area networking devices. Devices typically connect to an antenna-equipped base station or hotspot, which is then connected to the Internet. Wi-Fi devices use standards known as IEEE 802.11, and various version of this standard (e.g., b, g, n) may operate in different frequency bands and have access ranges.        
    Wi-Fi A term used to brand wireless local-area networking devices. Devices typically connect to an antenna-equipped base station or hotspot, which is then connected to the Internet. Wi-Fi devices use standards known as IEEE 802.11, and various version of this standard (e.g., b, g, n) may operate in different frequency bands and have access ranges.        
    wiki A Web site that can be modified by anyone, from directly within a Web browser (provided that user is granted edit access).        
    wiki A Web site that can be modified by anyone, from directly within a Web browser (provided that user is granted edit access).        
    wikimasters Individuals often employed by organizations to review community content in order to delete excessive posts, move commentary to the best location, and edit as necessary.        
    wikimasters Individuals often employed by organizations to review community content in order to delete excessive posts, move commentary to the best location, and edit as necessary.        
    windowing Industry practice whereby content (usually a motion picture) is available to a given distribution channel for a specified time period or “window,” usually under a different revenue model (e.g., ticket sale, purchase, license fee).        
    windowing Industry practice whereby content (usually a motion picture) is available to a given distribution channel for a specified time period or “window,” usually under a different revenue model (e.g., ticket sale, purchase, license fee).        
    wireless spectrum Frequencies used for communication. Most mobile cell phone services have to license spectrum. Some technologies (such as Wi-Fi) use unlicensed public spectrum.        
    wireless spectrum Frequencies used for communication. Most mobile cell phone services have to license spectrum. Some technologies (such as Wi-Fi) use unlicensed public spectrum.        
    wisdom of crowds The idea that a group of individuals (the crowd), often consisting of untrained amateurs, will collectively have more insight than a single or small group of trained professionals.        
    wisdom of crowds The idea that a group of individuals (the crowd), often consisting of untrained amateurs, will collectively have more insight than a single or small group of trained professionals.        
    XML Abbreviation of Extensible Markup Language. A tagging language that can be used to identify data fields made available for use by other applications. For example, programmers may wrap XML tags around elements in an address data stream (e.g., ⟨business name⟩, ⟨street address⟩, ⟨city⟩, ⟨state⟩) to allow other programs to recognize and use these data items.        
    XML Abbreviation of Extensible Markup Language. A tagging language that can be used to identify data fields made available for use by other applications. For example, programmers may wrap XML tags around elements in an address data stream (e.g., ⟨business name⟩, ⟨street address⟩, ⟨city⟩, ⟨state⟩) to allow other programs to recognize and use these data items.        
    zero-day exploits Attacks that are so new that they haven’t been clearly identified, and so they haven’t made it into security screening systems.        
    zero-day exploits Attacks that are so new that they haven’t been clearly identified, and so they haven’t made it into security screening systems.        
    zombie networks Sometimes called “clickbots” or “botnets,” these are hordes of surreptitiously infiltrated computers, linked and controlled remotely. This technique is used to perpetrate click fraud, as well as a variety of other computer security crimes.        
    zombie networks Sometimes called “clickbots” or “botnets,” these are hordes of surreptitiously infiltrated computers, linked and controlled remotely. This technique is used to perpetrate click fraud, as well as a variety of other computer security crimes.        
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