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Glossary

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    Glossary Entries
    Word(s) Definition Image Caption Link Source
    Accomplishment promotions Elevations scheduled for workers attaining specific, predetermined goals.        
    aesthetic argument As an argument in favor of protecting the natural world, the conviction that nature’s majesty is an ethical imperative to protection.        
    Affirmative action Measures implemented to advance toward fairness for minorities in the workplace, usually including some form of preferences for certain minority groups.        
    Affirmative action Measures implemented to advance toward fairness for minorities in the workplace, usually including some form of preferences for certain minority groups.        
    agent Someone acting on behalf of an organization and its interests.        
    agent Someone acting on behalf of an organization and its interests.        
    altruism Defining an act as morally right if the action’s consequences increase net happiness (or decrease net unhappiness) when everything is taken into account except the actor’s increased or diminished happiness.        
    altruism Defining an act as morally right if the action’s consequences increase net happiness (or decrease net unhappiness) when everything is taken into account except the actor’s increased or diminished happiness.        
    Anthropomorphism The attribution of human qualities to nonhuman things.        
    Anthropomorphism The attribution of human qualities to nonhuman things.        
    appearance of a conflict of interest An appearance of conflict exists when a reasonable person will conclude from the circumstances that the employee’s ability to perform his or her duties may be compromised by personal interest.        
    appearance of a conflict of interest An appearance of conflict exists when a reasonable person will conclude from the circumstances that the employee’s ability to perform his or her duties may be compromised by personal interest.        
    applicant screening Reducing a large pool of applicants to a manageable selection for serious consideration. Filters—for example, a certain educational level—eliminate inadequate applications rapidly.        
    applicant screening Reducing a large pool of applicants to a manageable selection for serious consideration. Filters—for example, a certain educational level—eliminate inadequate applications rapidly.        
    applicant testing Applying exams that are designed to predict an applicant’s success in a post.        
    applicant testing Applying exams that are designed to predict an applicant’s success in a post.        
    arguments In business ethics, showing how, given the facts, one action serves specific values better than other actions.        
    arguments In business ethics, showing how, given the facts, one action serves specific values better than other actions.        
    at-will employment The employer’s right to fire any employee at any time for any reason or for no reason whatsoever.        
    at-will employment The employer’s right to fire any employee at any time for any reason or for no reason whatsoever.        
    Avoid wronging others The duty to treat others as you would like to be treated by them.        
    Avoid wronging others The duty to treat others as you would like to be treated by them.        
    Balanced loyalty Within the field of broad company loyalty, the feeling that the organization’s existence and goals are valuable and independent of the employee’s welfare, but the employee’s welfare is also valuable and independent of the organization’s existence and goals.        
    Balanced loyalty Within the field of broad company loyalty, the feeling that the organization’s existence and goals are valuable and independent of the employee’s welfare, but the employee’s welfare is also valuable and independent of the organization’s existence and goals.        
    behavioral interview In a behavioral interview, applicants are asked to talk about how they have responded to specific—generally stressful—situations.        
    behavioral interview In a behavioral interview, applicants are asked to talk about how they have responded to specific—generally stressful—situations.        
    beneficence The requirement to help others when doing so requires no unreasonable sacrifice of one’s own interests.        
    beneficence The requirement to help others when doing so requires no unreasonable sacrifice of one’s own interests.        
    Beneficence The duty to promote others’ welfare so far as it is possible and reasonable.        
    Beneficence The duty to promote others’ welfare so far as it is possible and reasonable.        
    biological The belief that men and women are fundamentally different in terms of basic aspirations and capabilities.        
    biological The belief that men and women are fundamentally different in terms of basic aspirations and capabilities.        
    bona fide occupational qualifications (BFOQs) Exceptions granted to equal opportunity requirements when a specific qualification is essential to the job.        
    bona fide occupational qualifications (BFOQs) Exceptions granted to equal opportunity requirements when a specific qualification is essential to the job.        
    bonus A payment to an employee above the agreed upon salary for a job well done.        
    bonus A payment to an employee above the agreed upon salary for a job well done.        
    brand In the field of marketing, the consumer disposition toward a specific good or service.        
    brand In the field of marketing, the consumer disposition toward a specific good or service.        
    Bribes Something of value given to an individual to corrupt his or her professional judgment.        
    Bribes Something of value given to an individual to corrupt his or her professional judgment.        
    broad company loyalty An employee’s conviction that an organization—it’s ideals and actions—has intrinsic value distinct from its ability to serve the employee’s interests by providing a paycheck and associated benefits.        
    broad company loyalty An employee’s conviction that an organization—it’s ideals and actions—has intrinsic value distinct from its ability to serve the employee’s interests by providing a paycheck and associated benefits.        
    business ethics Providing reasons for how things ought to be in the economic world.        
    business ethics Providing reasons for how things ought to be in the economic world.        
    card check The Employee Free Choice Act or “card check” legislation allows unions to be organized without a secret ballot vote.        
    card check The Employee Free Choice Act or “card check” legislation allows unions to be organized without a secret ballot vote.        
    career sequencing Defining zones of your life and evaluating each separately in terms of work priorities, aspirations, and values.        
    career sequencing Defining zones of your life and evaluating each separately in terms of work priorities, aspirations, and values.        
    categorical imperative An ethical rule that does not depend on circumstances.        
    categorical imperative An ethical rule that does not depend on circumstances.        
    cause egoism Giving the false appearance of being concerned with the welfare of others in order to advance one’s own interests.        
    cause egoism Giving the false appearance of being concerned with the welfare of others in order to advance one’s own interests.        
    Cause egoism Giving the false appearance of being concerned with the welfare of others in order to advance one’s own interests.        
    Cause egoism Giving the false appearance of being concerned with the welfare of others in order to advance one’s own interests.        
    Caveat emptor A Latin phrase translating as “let the buyer beware.” As a doctrine, it means the consumer alone is responsible for the quality of the product purchased.        
    Caveat emptor A Latin phrase translating as “let the buyer beware.” As a doctrine, it means the consumer alone is responsible for the quality of the product purchased.        
    chief executive officer (CEO) Selected by the board of directors, the CEO is responsible for managing a company’s daily operations.        
    chief executive officer (CEO) Selected by the board of directors, the CEO is responsible for managing a company’s daily operations.        
    Civil Rights Act of 1964 Federal law banning discrimination in terms of race, color, religion, sex, or national origin.        
    Civil Rights Act of 1964 Federal law banning discrimination in terms of race, color, religion, sex, or national origin.        
    Civility The virtue of habitually being and expressing yourself in a way that establishes your presence without threatening or impinging on others.        
    Civility The virtue of habitually being and expressing yourself in a way that establishes your presence without threatening or impinging on others.        
    Client adoption An employee moving to a new organization and helping it appropriate the former organization’s client base.        
    Client adoption An employee moving to a new organization and helping it appropriate the former organization’s client base.        
    collective bottom line Within stakeholder ethics, the summed effect of a company’s actions on all stakeholders.        
    collective bottom line Within stakeholder ethics, the summed effect of a company’s actions on all stakeholders.        
    Comfort The physical and the emotional ease of a job.        
    Comfort The physical and the emotional ease of a job.        
    Commander As a leadership persona, one that gives clear directions and expects compliance.        
    Commander As a leadership persona, one that gives clear directions and expects compliance.        
    community interaction As an aspect of organizational culture, the degree to which an organization and its members participate in local, nonwork endeavors.        
    community interaction As an aspect of organizational culture, the degree to which an organization and its members participate in local, nonwork endeavors.        
    community wage level The standard range of wages paid at a location, usually across a city or a region.        
    community wage level The standard range of wages paid at a location, usually across a city or a region.        
    competitive promotions Elevations won when a worker is selected from among peers to receive a higher post.        
    competitive promotions Elevations won when a worker is selected from among peers to receive a higher post.        
    complex transaction A transaction where the seller is not the fabricator of the good being sold.        
    complex transaction A transaction where the seller is not the fabricator of the good being sold.        
    compliance In the business world, compliance measures the distance between what an organization says it believes in the abstract and what it and its members actually do.        
    compliance In the business world, compliance measures the distance between what an organization says it believes in the abstract and what it and its members actually do.        
    Complicit organizations With respect to employee drug use, an organization that knows employees are using drugs and doesn’t intervene .        
    Complicit organizations With respect to employee drug use, an organization that knows employees are using drugs and doesn’t intervene .        
    conceal facts A kind of deceitful advertising where claims made aren’t directly false, but pertinent information is intentionally left out.        
    conceal facts A kind of deceitful advertising where claims made aren’t directly false, but pertinent information is intentionally left out.        
    concealable A physical or cultural characteristic that may make one a target of discrimination and that may be concealed if the individual chooses—for example, religious faith.        
    concealable A physical or cultural characteristic that may make one a target of discrimination and that may be concealed if the individual chooses—for example, religious faith.        
    confidentiality clause A clause in many work contracts wherein employees promise not to share certain information with those outside the organization.        
    confidentiality clause A clause in many work contracts wherein employees promise not to share certain information with those outside the organization.        
    conflict of interest An employee in a situation—especially as a result of being offered a gift—where his or her interest in personal welfare may corrupt his or her ability to serve the employer’s interest.        
    conflict of interest An employee in a situation—especially as a result of being offered a gift—where his or her interest in personal welfare may corrupt his or her ability to serve the employer’s interest.        
    consequentialists An ethics focused on the results of actions, not the actions themselves.        
    consequentialists An ethics focused on the results of actions, not the actions themselves.        
    consistency principle In ethics, the requirement that similar people in similar situations be treated in similar ways.        
    consistency principle In ethics, the requirement that similar people in similar situations be treated in similar ways.        
    consumer advocate Within the marketplace ethics of retributive justice, the justification of consumer revenge against sellers of defective goods as protecting other consumers.        
    consumer advocate Within the marketplace ethics of retributive justice, the justification of consumer revenge against sellers of defective goods as protecting other consumers.        
    consumerism The identification of ourselves with the products we buy and an accompanying need to buy in order to exist.        
    consumerism The identification of ourselves with the products we buy and an accompanying need to buy in order to exist.        
    context slacker An employee dedicated to doing the least work possible because the incentive system of the labor contract—or some other external factor—encourages the attitude.        
    context slacker An employee dedicated to doing the least work possible because the incentive system of the labor contract—or some other external factor—encourages the attitude.        
    Corporate culture The constellation of beliefs, customs, habits, and values determining how a business or organization acts in the world.        
    Corporate culture The constellation of beliefs, customs, habits, and values determining how a business or organization acts in the world.        
    corporate culture ethics audit A corporate (or organizational) culture ethics audit attempts to measure how open channels are between the ethical values stationed at the top of the organization to guide activities and the actual practices down below.        
    corporate culture ethics audit A corporate (or organizational) culture ethics audit attempts to measure how open channels are between the ethical values stationed at the top of the organization to guide activities and the actual practices down below.        
    corporate social responsibility In general, the conviction that corporations are not only legal entities with responsibilities but also moral entities, and they hold ethical obligations comparable to those of citizens in a society.        
    corporate social responsibility In general, the conviction that corporations are not only legal entities with responsibilities but also moral entities, and they hold ethical obligations comparable to those of citizens in a society.        
    corporate social responsibility (CSR) As a specific theory of business ethics, a package of four obligations the corporation holds as an independent ethical actor in society; the responsibilities are economic, legal, ethical, and philanthropic.        
    corporate social responsibility (CSR) As a specific theory of business ethics, a package of four obligations the corporation holds as an independent ethical actor in society; the responsibilities are economic, legal, ethical, and philanthropic.        
    cost-benefit analysis The summing of an action’s costs and its weighing against summed benefits.        
    cost-benefit analysis The summing of an action’s costs and its weighing against summed benefits.        
    Courage The virtue of moderate boldness between the extremes of cowardice and rashness.        
    Courage The virtue of moderate boldness between the extremes of cowardice and rashness.        
    Criminal record screening Screening job applications by eliminating those whose past crimes suggest risks in performing job duties.        
    Criminal record screening Screening job applications by eliminating those whose past crimes suggest risks in performing job duties.        
    Crony capitalism Decisions made on the basis of personal relationships and loyalties more than unbiased judgments and purely professional considerations.        
    Crony capitalism Decisions made on the basis of personal relationships and loyalties more than unbiased judgments and purely professional considerations.        
    cultural dissonance A conflict between the values the organization publicly promotes as essential to its functioning, and the values guiding an organization’s workers in their day-to-day activities.        
    cultural dissonance A conflict between the values the organization publicly promotes as essential to its functioning, and the values guiding an organization’s workers in their day-to-day activities.        
    cultural ethics The theory that moral doctrines are only the rules a community believes, and acting in a way that’s ethically recommendable means learning and following those local guidelines.        
    cultural ethics The theory that moral doctrines are only the rules a community believes, and acting in a way that’s ethically recommendable means learning and following those local guidelines.        
    cultural imperialism In business ethics, the charge that multinational companies are forcing a single set of ethical codes and attitudes on people with divergent histories, habits, and customs.        
    cultural imperialism In business ethics, the charge that multinational companies are forcing a single set of ethical codes and attitudes on people with divergent histories, habits, and customs.        
    cultural relativism The suspicion that values and morality are culture specific and not the result of universal reason. They’re what a community believes, and that’s it.        
    cultural relativism The suspicion that values and morality are culture specific and not the result of universal reason. They’re what a community believes, and that’s it.        
    culturalist ethics The definition of ethical right and wrong as aligning with a society’s accepted rules and norms of behavior.        
    culturalist ethics The definition of ethical right and wrong as aligning with a society’s accepted rules and norms of behavior.        
    deny the premise A kind of rational argument that questions another’s opinion by insisting that their basic assumptions are wrong.        
    deny the premise A kind of rational argument that questions another’s opinion by insisting that their basic assumptions are wrong.        
    Descriptive ethics The study of what people actually do and why.        
    Descriptive ethics The study of what people actually do and why.        
    dignity principle In ethics, the requirement that people be treated as holding intrinsic value.        
    dignity principle In ethics, the requirement that people be treated as holding intrinsic value.        
    discourse ethics The method of resolving ethical dilemmas by gathering involved parties and asking them to discuss the matter reasonably until a consensual and peaceful solution is found.        
    discourse ethics The method of resolving ethical dilemmas by gathering involved parties and asking them to discuss the matter reasonably until a consensual and peaceful solution is found.        
    distance limited As a conception of envy, the idea that we only feel jealous of those who are like us in important ways.        
    distance limited As a conception of envy, the idea that we only feel jealous of those who are like us in important ways.        
    doctrine of comparable worth Dictates that distinct occupations requiring comparable levels of skill, training, and effort and responsibility should be rewarded with comparable salaries.        
    doctrine of comparable worth Dictates that distinct occupations requiring comparable levels of skill, training, and effort and responsibility should be rewarded with comparable salaries.        
    domination and progress argument The argument that the natural world doesn’t need to be protected because it’s not important and because technology will resolve problems caused by nature’s corruption.        
    domination and progress argument The argument that the natural world doesn’t need to be protected because it’s not important and because technology will resolve problems caused by nature’s corruption.        
    dress code A set of rules—explicit or implicit—distinguishing what garments may and what may not be worn in the workplace.        
    dress code A set of rules—explicit or implicit—distinguishing what garments may and what may not be worn in the workplace.        
    Dress codes As an aspect of organizational culture, a set of rules—explicit or implicit—distinguishing what garments may and what may not be worn in the workplace.        
    Dress codes As an aspect of organizational culture, a set of rules—explicit or implicit—distinguishing what garments may and what may not be worn in the workplace.        
    drug In the area of business ethics, a substance providing a temporary and artificially desirable state, one followed by a reversal to a level below the original condition.        
    drug In the area of business ethics, a substance providing a temporary and artificially desirable state, one followed by a reversal to a level below the original condition.        
    drug test Questioning about and testing for illegal drug usage.        
    drug test Questioning about and testing for illegal drug usage.        
    drug test reliability The extent to which a drug test returns false positives or erroneous negatives.        
    drug test reliability The extent to which a drug test returns false positives or erroneous negatives.        
    Drugs tests A chemical analysis to determine whether an individual has used drugs.        
    Drugs tests A chemical analysis to determine whether an individual has used drugs.        
    due care The conception of manufacturers as being in a position to understand the potential dangers of their products and therefore as obligated to take precautions to ensure quality and safety.        
    due care The conception of manufacturers as being in a position to understand the potential dangers of their products and therefore as obligated to take precautions to ensure quality and safety.        
    Duties to others Ethical responsibilities for others.        
    Duties to others Ethical responsibilities for others.        
    Duties to ourselves Ethical responsibilities we hold to ourselves, determining how we live and treat ourselves.        
    Duties to ourselves Ethical responsibilities we hold to ourselves, determining how we live and treat ourselves.        
    duty The moral obligation to perform an act that is right, regardless of the consequences.        
    duty The moral obligation to perform an act that is right, regardless of the consequences.        
    duty to do ourselves no harm The ethical duty to ourselves, requiring us to respect our being by not harming or abusing ourselves.        
    duty to do ourselves no harm The ethical duty to ourselves, requiring us to respect our being by not harming or abusing ourselves.        
    economic asymmetry In the field of marketing, a large imbalance in monetary power and commercial knowledge favoring professional advertisers when weighed against consumers.        
    economic asymmetry In the field of marketing, a large imbalance in monetary power and commercial knowledge favoring professional advertisers when weighed against consumers.        
    Economic slowdowns Slowdowns in the general economy.        
    Economic slowdowns Slowdowns in the general economy.        
    ecosystem Composed of living and nonliving elements, it’s a web of balanced interactions allowing the continuation of each element.        
    ecosystem Composed of living and nonliving elements, it’s a web of balanced interactions allowing the continuation of each element.        
    education Screening job applications by eliminating those not meeting educational requirements. The candidate may be either undereducated or overeducated for the post.        
    education Screening job applications by eliminating those not meeting educational requirements. The candidate may be either undereducated or overeducated for the post.        
    effort As a formula for wage distribution, the assignment of wages to reflect number of hours or amount of force exerted toiling.        
    effort As a formula for wage distribution, the assignment of wages to reflect number of hours or amount of force exerted toiling.        
    egoism The belief that an action is morally right if the action’s consequences are more beneficial than unfavorable for the person who acts.        
    egoism The belief that an action is morally right if the action’s consequences are more beneficial than unfavorable for the person who acts.        
    employee interaction As an aspect of organizational culture, the way members relate to each other on the job.        
    employee interaction As an aspect of organizational culture, the way members relate to each other on the job.        
    Employee misbehavior Employee actions breaking the organization’s rules or norms.        
    Employee misbehavior Employee actions breaking the organization’s rules or norms.        
    Enabling organizations With respect to employee drug use, an organization that actively encourages, or at least facilitates, drug use by employees.        
    Enabling organizations With respect to employee drug use, an organization that actively encourages, or at least facilitates, drug use by employees.        
    ends The goals you want to reach, as distinct from what you need to do to reach them.        
    ends The goals you want to reach, as distinct from what you need to do to reach them.        
    Enlightened egoism The belief that benefitting others—acting to increase their happiness—can serve the egoist’s self-interest just as much as the egoist’s acts directly in favor of him or herself.        
    Enlightened egoism The belief that benefitting others—acting to increase their happiness—can serve the egoist’s self-interest just as much as the egoist’s acts directly in favor of him or herself.        
    Enlightened self-interest In the business world, taking on broad responsibilities for the social welfare because, on careful analysis, that public generosity also benefits the company’s bottom line.        
    Enlightened self-interest In the business world, taking on broad responsibilities for the social welfare because, on careful analysis, that public generosity also benefits the company’s bottom line.        
    Environmental exploitation Organizations damaging the environment with their operations while avoiding paying cleanup costs.        
    Environmental exploitation Organizations damaging the environment with their operations while avoiding paying cleanup costs.        
    environmental impact statement A report on how a project will impact both the natural and human worlds.        
    environmental impact statement A report on how a project will impact both the natural and human worlds.        
    Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Established in 1970, this agency of the US government monitors and reports on the state of the environment while establishing and enforcing specific regulations.        
    Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Established in 1970, this agency of the US government monitors and reports on the state of the environment while establishing and enforcing specific regulations.        
    Episodic evidence of racism Evidence of racism in society gleaned from specific, unplanned occurrences.        
    Episodic evidence of racism Evidence of racism in society gleaned from specific, unplanned occurrences.        
    Equipment-use abuse The use of an organization’s equipment for activities unrelated to work, including looking for a job elsewhere.        
    Equipment-use abuse The use of an organization’s equipment for activities unrelated to work, including looking for a job elsewhere.        
    Ethically dubious missions and connections Organizational activities directly or indirectly producing ethical concerns.        
    Ethically dubious missions and connections Organizational activities directly or indirectly producing ethical concerns.        
    ethics The production of morals.        
    ethics The production of morals.        
    ethics of care Making the nurturing of our immediate communities and the protecting of those closest to us the highest moral obligation.        
    ethics of care Making the nurturing of our immediate communities and the protecting of those closest to us the highest moral obligation.        
    experimental indication of racism Evidence of racism in society gleaned from planned experiments.        
    experimental indication of racism Evidence of racism in society gleaned from planned experiments.        
    Exploitation of consumers Taking advantage of consumers’ conditions or knowledge to market products that fail to serve the consumers’ interests.        
    Exploitation of consumers Taking advantage of consumers’ conditions or knowledge to market products that fail to serve the consumers’ interests.        
    exploitation of workers Taking advantage of workers’ economic or social conditions to acquire their labor at a low cost.        
    exploitation of workers Taking advantage of workers’ economic or social conditions to acquire their labor at a low cost.        
    externalities Business costs borne by third parties.        
    externalities Business costs borne by third parties.        
    externality In the economic world, a cost of a good or service that isn’t accounted for in the price.        
    externality In the economic world, a cost of a good or service that isn’t accounted for in the price.        
    Fair questioning Asking similar and similarly challenging questions to all applicants for a post.        
    Fair questioning Asking similar and similarly challenging questions to all applicants for a post.        
    fair trade movement Proponents ask businesses—especially large producers in the wealthiest countries—to guarantee that suppliers in impoverished nations receive reasonable payment for their goods and services even when the raw economic laws of supply and demand don’t require it.        
    fair trade movement Proponents ask businesses—especially large producers in the wealthiest countries—to guarantee that suppliers in impoverished nations receive reasonable payment for their goods and services even when the raw economic laws of supply and demand don’t require it.        
    fairness The duty to treat equals equally and unequals unequally.        
    fairness The duty to treat equals equally and unequals unequally.        
    Fairness The virtue of judging people’s acts dispassionately, evenhandedly, and from all points of view.        
    Fairness The virtue of judging people’s acts dispassionately, evenhandedly, and from all points of view.        
    Fairness The argument that discrimination is wrong because it treats people unequally for reasons not involving merit.        
    Fairness The argument that discrimination is wrong because it treats people unequally for reasons not involving merit.        
    fairness argument Defends the star system as ethically acceptable by claiming that extraordinarily high levels of responsibility merit extraordinarily high levels of compensation.        
    fairness argument Defends the star system as ethically acceptable by claiming that extraordinarily high levels of responsibility merit extraordinarily high levels of compensation.        
    False claims A kind of deceitful advertising where claims made are directly false.        
    False claims A kind of deceitful advertising where claims made are directly false.        
    Federal Trade Commission (FTC) An agency of the federal government charged with investigating and preventing unfair and deceptive marketing practices.        
    Federal Trade Commission (FTC) An agency of the federal government charged with investigating and preventing unfair and deceptive marketing practices.        
    Fidelity The duty to keep our promises and hold up our end of bargains.        
    Fidelity The duty to keep our promises and hold up our end of bargains.        
    flat wealth distribution A formula for wage distribution where everyone gets the same amount.        
    flat wealth distribution A formula for wage distribution where everyone gets the same amount.        
    franchise A form of business where a company with a successful operation (called the franchisor) offers others (called franchisees) the opportunity to function under the franchisor’s trade name in exchange for a fee or similar compensation.        
    franchise A form of business where a company with a successful operation (called the franchisor) offers others (called franchisees) the opportunity to function under the franchisor’s trade name in exchange for a fee or similar compensation.        
    Free agency Within the field of broad company loyalty, the feeling that the organization’s existence and goals are valuable only insofar as they serve the employee’s welfare.        
    Free agency Within the field of broad company loyalty, the feeling that the organization’s existence and goals are valuable only insofar as they serve the employee’s welfare.        
    free use From this perspective, the natural world is entirely dedicated to serving immediate human needs and desires.        
    free use From this perspective, the natural world is entirely dedicated to serving immediate human needs and desires.        
    freedom The right to pursue our own happiness in the ways we as individuals determine.        
    freedom The right to pursue our own happiness in the ways we as individuals determine.        
    fundamental changes in the market Basic and far-reaching changes in consumer demands.        
    fundamental changes in the market Basic and far-reaching changes in consumer demands.        
    geological time Time understood relative to the earth’s history instead of humanity’s.        
    geological time Time understood relative to the earth’s history instead of humanity’s.        
    glass ceiling An unacknowledged block on the advance of qualified people—especially women—to high posts in an organization.        
    glass ceiling An unacknowledged block on the advance of qualified people—especially women—to high posts in an organization.        
    global ethics An ethics taking into account everyone affected by an act, now and in the future.        
    global ethics An ethics taking into account everyone affected by an act, now and in the future.        
    Government safety regulation Legal measures and actions taken by governments to protect consumers.        
    Government safety regulation Legal measures and actions taken by governments to protect consumers.        
    Gratitude The duty to thank and remember those who help us.        
    Gratitude The duty to thank and remember those who help us.        
    Greenhouse gasses Gasses that absorb and hold heat from the sun, preventing it from dissipating into space.        
    Greenhouse gasses Gasses that absorb and hold heat from the sun, preventing it from dissipating into space.        
    grooming codes A set of rules—explicit or implicit—concerning hygiene and presentation at work. Codes may concern hair, tattoos, fingernails, and similar.        
    grooming codes A set of rules—explicit or implicit—concerning hygiene and presentation at work. Codes may concern hair, tattoos, fingernails, and similar.        
    Hard utilitarianism The ethical belief that an act is recommendable if it increases net happiness (or decreases net unhappiness) when everyone is taken into account and when the total benefit is more than any other possible act.        
    Hard utilitarianism The ethical belief that an act is recommendable if it increases net happiness (or decreases net unhappiness) when everyone is taken into account and when the total benefit is more than any other possible act.        
    high-risk lifestyles Screening job applications by eliminating those whose lifestyles pose risks to work performance. Smoking is a common example.        
    high-risk lifestyles Screening job applications by eliminating those whose lifestyles pose risks to work performance. Smoking is a common example.        
    high-stress jobs A job in which the anxiety of the workday consistently washes over into the employee’s nonwork life.        
    high-stress jobs A job in which the anxiety of the workday consistently washes over into the employee’s nonwork life.        
    Honesty The duty to tell the truth and not leave anything important out.        
    Honesty The duty to tell the truth and not leave anything important out.        
    honesty tests Psychological tests attempting to measure honesty.        
    honesty tests Psychological tests attempting to measure honesty.        
    horizontal Within the star system, the number of fields of activity where large wealth imbalances are prevalent.        
    horizontal Within the star system, the number of fields of activity where large wealth imbalances are prevalent.        
    Idea appropriation Taking ideas belonging to an organization and using them for your own benefit.        
    Idea appropriation Taking ideas belonging to an organization and using them for your own benefit.        
    idealistic Utilitarianism seeking to maximize sensations of happiness and pleasure connected with intellectual life and culture.        
    idealistic Utilitarianism seeking to maximize sensations of happiness and pleasure connected with intellectual life and culture.        
    ignorant consumer standard A presumption that protections against deceitful advertising should be extended to cover marketing efforts that would significantly mislead any consumer, including those much less sophisticated or experienced than typical buyers.        
    ignorant consumer standard A presumption that protections against deceitful advertising should be extended to cover marketing efforts that would significantly mislead any consumer, including those much less sophisticated or experienced than typical buyers.        
    impersonal altruism The belief that everyone should practice an altruistic ethics.        
    impersonal altruism The belief that everyone should practice an altruistic ethics.        
    impersonal egoism The belief that everyone should practice ethical of egoism.        
    impersonal egoism The belief that everyone should practice ethical of egoism.        
    implicit contract An unwritten agreement formed between sellers and buyers as a function of their transaction.        
    implicit contract An unwritten agreement formed between sellers and buyers as a function of their transaction.        
    implied warranty What consumers may claim from sellers if the good or service fails to meet expectations, as those expectations are defined by an implicit contract.        
    implied warranty What consumers may claim from sellers if the good or service fails to meet expectations, as those expectations are defined by an implicit contract.        
    incentives Offered by government agencies and other institutions, they provide reasons for organizations to voluntarily cooperate with environmental protection efforts.        
    incentives Offered by government agencies and other institutions, they provide reasons for organizations to voluntarily cooperate with environmental protection efforts.        
    individual discrimination Discrimination expressed by an individual within an organization that may not share the outlook.        
    individual discrimination Discrimination expressed by an individual within an organization that may not share the outlook.        
    informational advertising Commercials and advertisements presenting facts to influence consumers.        
    informational advertising Commercials and advertisements presenting facts to influence consumers.        
    Informed consent With respect to drug testing, a decision to accept possible testing after making a careful and deliberative judgment.        
    Informed consent With respect to drug testing, a decision to accept possible testing after making a careful and deliberative judgment.        
    instrumentalism Treating a job as valueless in itself, and as an instrument to do or attain something else.        
    instrumentalism Treating a job as valueless in itself, and as an instrument to do or attain something else.        
    intelligence quotient (IQ) testing Testing for intelligence.        
    intelligence quotient (IQ) testing Testing for intelligence.        
    intentional discrimination Discriminatory acts stemming from explicitly realized prejudice.        
    intentional discrimination Discriminatory acts stemming from explicitly realized prejudice.        
    Internal public job announcements Announcing an open position only to individuals already closely linked to an organization.        
    Internal public job announcements Announcing an open position only to individuals already closely linked to an organization.        
    internship Low-paying post workers accept to gain valuable experience.        
    internship Low-paying post workers accept to gain valuable experience.        
    invisible hand In business ethics, the force of marketplace competition that encourages or even requires individuals who want to make money to make the lives of others better in the process.        
    invisible hand In business ethics, the force of marketplace competition that encourages or even requires individuals who want to make money to make the lives of others better in the process.        
    Just cause firing The doctrine that employers have a responsibility to demonstrate that dismissed workers were failing to fulfill their duties adequately.        
    Just cause firing The doctrine that employers have a responsibility to demonstrate that dismissed workers were failing to fulfill their duties adequately.        
    Kickbacks Something of value given to an individual in return for having corrupted his or her professional judgment.        
    Kickbacks Something of value given to an individual in return for having corrupted his or her professional judgment.        
    knowledge and resource exploitation The employment of specialized marketing knowledge and the use of the vast financial resources to condition consumers.        
    knowledge and resource exploitation The employment of specialized marketing knowledge and the use of the vast financial resources to condition consumers.        
    labor union An organization of employees formed to promote their job-related interests, especially with respect to wages and working conditions.        
    labor union An organization of employees formed to promote their job-related interests, especially with respect to wages and working conditions.        
    laissez-faire French for “leave to do.” In the economic world it denotes an unobstructed marketplace where businesses compete with minimal regulation, oversight, and limitation.        
    laissez-faire French for “leave to do.” In the economic world it denotes an unobstructed marketplace where businesses compete with minimal regulation, oversight, and limitation.        
    Legal paternalism The doctrine that government regulators must restrict citizen marketplace freedoms in order to serve the citizens’ interest.        
    Legal paternalism The doctrine that government regulators must restrict citizen marketplace freedoms in order to serve the citizens’ interest.        
    leisure time Time separated from work and its concerns.        
    leisure time Time separated from work and its concerns.        
    leisure time As an aspect of organizational culture, the leisure time habits and preferences of an organization’s members.        
    leisure time As an aspect of organizational culture, the leisure time habits and preferences of an organization’s members.        
    Libertarianism Within ethical theory, the acceptance of basic rights as the providers of moral guidance, with emphasis attached to the right to our possessions and the fruits of our work.        
    Libertarianism Within ethical theory, the acceptance of basic rights as the providers of moral guidance, with emphasis attached to the right to our possessions and the fruits of our work.        
    local deference ethical strategy Accepting that the customs and habits of those forming a society should provide guidance for all those entering the society.        
    local deference ethical strategy Accepting that the customs and habits of those forming a society should provide guidance for all those entering the society.        
    Ludditism Resistance to all technological development.        
    Ludditism Resistance to all technological development.        
    manager’s duty to the employee The manager’s ethical responsibility to protect the interests of his or her employees.        
    manager’s duty to the employee The manager’s ethical responsibility to protect the interests of his or her employees.        
    manager’s duty to the organization The manager’s ethical responsibility to protect the interests of the organization.        
    manager’s duty to the organization The manager’s ethical responsibility to protect the interests of the organization.        
    Manufacturer liability The consumer right to sue manufacturers for injuries caused by a defective product.        
    Manufacturer liability The consumer right to sue manufacturers for injuries caused by a defective product.        
    Market adoption An employee moving to a new organization and helping it appropriate the former organization’s market segment.        
    Market adoption An employee moving to a new organization and helping it appropriate the former organization’s market segment.        
    market forces The determination of prices, wages, and similar in accord with basic economic laws of supply and demand.        
    market forces The determination of prices, wages, and similar in accord with basic economic laws of supply and demand.        
    marketplace Understood in ethical terms, it is the enforcement of rules for behavior by economic reality.        
    marketplace Understood in ethical terms, it is the enforcement of rules for behavior by economic reality.        
    marketplace responsibility The twin views that the notion of corporate social responsibility is misguided and dangerous, and the corporate purpose of profit maximization serves the social welfare while cohering with the value of human freedom that should be paramount in business ethics.        
    marketplace responsibility The twin views that the notion of corporate social responsibility is misguided and dangerous, and the corporate purpose of profit maximization serves the social welfare while cohering with the value of human freedom that should be paramount in business ethics.        
    Mass public job announcements Announcing an open position widely and indiscriminately with the idea of maximizing knowledge of the available post and applications for it.        
    Mass public job announcements Announcing an open position widely and indiscriminately with the idea of maximizing knowledge of the available post and applications for it.        
    meaningful work Work holding significance apart from the nine-to-five life and distinct from paying the bills.        
    meaningful work Work holding significance apart from the nine-to-five life and distinct from paying the bills.        
    Medical tests Testing for specific medical problems that may impede work performance.        
    Medical tests Testing for specific medical problems that may impede work performance.        
    metaethics The study of the origin and rules of ethics and morality.        
    metaethics The study of the origin and rules of ethics and morality.        
    minority The status of being vulnerable to discrimination.        
    minority The status of being vulnerable to discrimination.        
    monetization Assigning dollar values to human experiences.        
    monetization Assigning dollar values to human experiences.        
    Monetized utilitarianism The reduction of happiness and sadness to monetary values within a utilitarian ethics.        
    Monetized utilitarianism The reduction of happiness and sadness to monetary values within a utilitarian ethics.        
    money As a tool for evaluating jobs, adding the salary and monetary benefits to assign a desirability to specific jobs.        
    money As a tool for evaluating jobs, adding the salary and monetary benefits to assign a desirability to specific jobs.        
    Morals Direct rules we ought to follow.        
    Morals Direct rules we ought to follow.        
    multicultural respect ethical strategy Accepting that the customs and habits of members of diverse societies are legitimate and should be respected no matter where they may be.        
    multicultural respect ethical strategy Accepting that the customs and habits of members of diverse societies are legitimate and should be respected no matter where they may be.        
    need A formula for wage distribution where everyone gets the funding necessary to maintain a quality of life comparable with that of everyone else.        
    need A formula for wage distribution where everyone gets the funding necessary to maintain a quality of life comparable with that of everyone else.        
    Negative résumé misrepresentations Parts of one’s professional experience deleted from the résumé.        
    Negative résumé misrepresentations Parts of one’s professional experience deleted from the résumé.        
    Negative rights Those rights that require others to not interfere with me and whatever I’m doing.        
    Negative rights Those rights that require others to not interfere with me and whatever I’m doing.        
    Nepotism In the case of hiring, announcing an open position only to members of the extended family.        
    Nepotism In the case of hiring, announcing an open position only to members of the extended family.        
    Nonprofit corporations Corporations formed to serve a charitable or civic cause that are exempt from taxes and channel income back into the cause they’re formed to serve.        
    Nonprofit corporations Corporations formed to serve a charitable or civic cause that are exempt from taxes and channel income back into the cause they’re formed to serve.        
    notice Informing an employer of plans to resign.        
    notice Informing an employer of plans to resign.        
    Obedience loyalty Within the field of broad company loyalty, the feeling that the organization’s existence and goals are far more valuable than the employee’s welfare.        
    Obedience loyalty Within the field of broad company loyalty, the feeling that the organization’s existence and goals are far more valuable than the employee’s welfare.        
    Objectification The reduction of a human being—his or her nobility and dignity—to nothing more than the object, which is his or her body.        
    Objectification The reduction of a human being—his or her nobility and dignity—to nothing more than the object, which is his or her body.        
    organizational code A set of written rules defining an organizational culture and indicating how individuals ought to act within the organization.        
    organizational code A set of written rules defining an organizational culture and indicating how individuals ought to act within the organization.        
    Organizational wage level The salary range a company sets for its employees, independent of the community wage level and wages as set by other, competing companies.        
    Organizational wage level The salary range a company sets for its employees, independent of the community wage level and wages as set by other, competing companies.        
    partnership A business owned by more than one person.        
    partnership A business owned by more than one person.        
    pass-through taxation A tax regime where the profits (or losses) of a company are passed through to the owners who are responsible for declaring and paying taxes—the company itself pays no taxes.        
    pass-through taxation A tax regime where the profits (or losses) of a company are passed through to the owners who are responsible for declaring and paying taxes—the company itself pays no taxes.        
    patented or copyrighted information An idea or information belonging to a company and protected from use by others by being publicly registered.        
    patented or copyrighted information An idea or information belonging to a company and protected from use by others by being publicly registered.        
    people as ends, not means Within Kant’s theory of the categorical imperative, the requirement that people not be used as instruments to get something else.        
    people as ends, not means Within Kant’s theory of the categorical imperative, the requirement that people not be used as instruments to get something else.        
    perennial duties Those specific requirements for action that have subsisted through history, for example, the duty not to steal.        
    perennial duties Those specific requirements for action that have subsisted through history, for example, the duty not to steal.        
    persona of leadership The image and values a leader chooses to project across the workplace.        
    persona of leadership The image and values a leader chooses to project across the workplace.        
    personal business ethics Questions of business ethics attaching to specific people in particular circumstances.        
    personal business ethics Questions of business ethics attaching to specific people in particular circumstances.        
    pertinent interview questions Interview questions relating to job performance.        
    pertinent interview questions Interview questions relating to job performance.        
    perverse incentive In the area of wages, a structure for determining salary increases that encourages work that is less effective, less efficient, or both.        
    perverse incentive In the area of wages, a structure for determining salary increases that encourages work that is less effective, less efficient, or both.        
    Photochemical smog Better known as smog, it’s a cocktail of gases and particles released into the air that react with sunlight to make a harmful cloud.        
    Photochemical smog Better known as smog, it’s a cocktail of gases and particles released into the air that react with sunlight to make a harmful cloud.        
    Political action As an aspect of organizational culture, the degree to which an organization and its members participate in partisan political activities not directly related to work endeavors.        
    Political action As an aspect of organizational culture, the degree to which an organization and its members participate in partisan political activities not directly related to work endeavors.        
    Positive résumé misrepresentations Invented items inserted into a résumé.        
    Positive résumé misrepresentations Invented items inserted into a résumé.        
    Positive rights Obligations others have to help protect and preserve my basic, negative rights.        
    Positive rights Obligations others have to help protect and preserve my basic, negative rights.        
    postmodernism Postmodernism in ethics is the suspicion that no single ethical code is indisputably right.        
    postmodernism Postmodernism in ethics is the suspicion that no single ethical code is indisputably right.        
    power As part of a job, the ability to directly control or significantly influence others.        
    power As part of a job, the ability to directly control or significantly influence others.        
    Practical wisdom (sometimes called prudence) As a virtue, it’s the learned ability to respond to difficult situations intelligently, calmly, and prudently.        
    Practical wisdom (sometimes called prudence) As a virtue, it’s the learned ability to respond to difficult situations intelligently, calmly, and prudently.        
    prestige As a job-related value, the admiration others feel for you because of the work you do.        
    prestige As a job-related value, the admiration others feel for you because of the work you do.        
    privacy The right to be left alone by others.        
    privacy The right to be left alone by others.        
    private corporations A corporation with share allocation limited to a group or single person.        
    private corporations A corporation with share allocation limited to a group or single person.        
    Product sincerity Openness and transparency about what’s being offered to consumers.        
    Product sincerity Openness and transparency about what’s being offered to consumers.        
    progressive approach As an approach to environmental protection, the attitude that technological advance will resolve problems.        
    progressive approach As an approach to environmental protection, the attitude that technological advance will resolve problems.        
    projected performance An employee’s work performance judged by predicting how well future, usually distinct, tasks will be accomplished.        
    projected performance An employee’s work performance judged by predicting how well future, usually distinct, tasks will be accomplished.        
    proportional revenge Within the marketplace ethics of retributive justice, the principle that the cost imposed on sellers of defective goods should be comparable with the consumer’s loss.        
    proportional revenge Within the marketplace ethics of retributive justice, the principle that the cost imposed on sellers of defective goods should be comparable with the consumer’s loss.        
    Prurience An immoderate and unwholesome interest or desire, especially one that’s related to sex.        
    Prurience An immoderate and unwholesome interest or desire, especially one that’s related to sex.        
    Psychological and personality tests Applicant tests attempting to measure mental state and suitability for job tasks.        
    Psychological and personality tests Applicant tests attempting to measure mental state and suitability for job tasks.        
    psychological egoism The belief that we’re all necessarily egoists; it’s an inescapable part of what it means to be human.        
    psychological egoism The belief that we’re all necessarily egoists; it’s an inescapable part of what it means to be human.        
    Puffery A technical term in advertising signifying expressed views that are so clearly subjective exaggerations or product slogans that no reasonable person would take them literally.        
    Puffery A technical term in advertising signifying expressed views that are so clearly subjective exaggerations or product slogans that no reasonable person would take them literally.        
    race-based scholarship Scholarships open only to specific racial (or ethnic) groups        
    race-based scholarship Scholarships open only to specific racial (or ethnic) groups        
    Racial discrimination In a business environment, treating individuals differently from others for reasons of race and at the expense of professional merit.        
    Racial discrimination In a business environment, treating individuals differently from others for reasons of race and at the expense of professional merit.        
    Rank and yank The management practice of ranking employee performance and dismissing those near the bottom even when they are fulfilling their duties adequately        
    Rank and yank The management practice of ranking employee performance and dismissing those near the bottom even when they are fulfilling their duties adequately        
    reasonable consumer standard A presumption that protections against deceitful advertising should only be extended to cover marketing efforts that would significantly mislead a thoughtful, moderately experienced consumer.        
    reasonable consumer standard A presumption that protections against deceitful advertising should only be extended to cover marketing efforts that would significantly mislead a thoughtful, moderately experienced consumer.        
    reasonable person model A way of answering questions by appealing to how a typical, reasonable person would respond if asked.        
    reasonable person model A way of answering questions by appealing to how a typical, reasonable person would respond if asked.        
    regularized Recurrent episodes of discrimination indicative of an individual’s or organization’s standard practice.        
    regularized Recurrent episodes of discrimination indicative of an individual’s or organization’s standard practice.        
    Regulations Requirements for action imposed by governmental bodies.        
    Regulations Requirements for action imposed by governmental bodies.        
    religious belief As an aspect of organizational culture, the degree to which an organization and its members embody a faith not directly related to work endeavors.        
    religious belief As an aspect of organizational culture, the degree to which an organization and its members embody a faith not directly related to work endeavors.        
    renegade consumer The buyer who goes outside the system of contractual and legal safeguards to respond to defective goods and services.        
    renegade consumer The buyer who goes outside the system of contractual and legal safeguards to respond to defective goods and services.        
    Reparation The duty to compensate others when we harm them.        
    Reparation The duty to compensate others when we harm them.        
    repayment clause Contractual stipulation that departing employees may be billed for their training if the departure occurs before the employer has recouped the cost of the training.        
    repayment clause Contractual stipulation that departing employees may be billed for their training if the departure occurs before the employer has recouped the cost of the training.        
    Reporting Bringing to light only within the organization information about misdeeds by the organization or by an individual within the organization.        
    Reporting Bringing to light only within the organization information about misdeeds by the organization or by an individual within the organization.        
    Respect others The duty to treat others as valuable in themselves and not as tools for your own projects.        
    Respect others The duty to treat others as valuable in themselves and not as tools for your own projects.        
    Retributive justice Principled revenge taken against those who have wronged you.        
    Retributive justice Principled revenge taken against those who have wronged you.        
    right A justified claim against others.        
    right A justified claim against others.        
    right to free agency The claim that each of us owns ourselves, and we’re free to use and sell our abilities as we like.        
    right to free agency The claim that each of us owns ourselves, and we’re free to use and sell our abilities as we like.        
    right to free speech Within a rights ethical theory, the guarantee that individuals may say what they like, assuming their speech doesn’t encroach upon the freedom of others.        
    right to free speech Within a rights ethical theory, the guarantee that individuals may say what they like, assuming their speech doesn’t encroach upon the freedom of others.        
    right to freedom Within a rights ethical theory, the guarantee that individuals may do as they please, assuming their actions don’t encroach upon the freedom of others.        
    right to freedom Within a rights ethical theory, the guarantee that individuals may do as they please, assuming their actions don’t encroach upon the freedom of others.        
    right to life Within a rights ethical theory, the responsibility to respect the life of all individuals.        
    right to life Within a rights ethical theory, the responsibility to respect the life of all individuals.        
    right to possessions Within a rights ethical theory, the guarantee that individuals and organizations may earn freely and keep what they have made.        
    right to possessions Within a rights ethical theory, the guarantee that individuals and organizations may earn freely and keep what they have made.        
    right to pursue happiness Within a rights ethical theory, the guarantee that individuals may seek happiness any way they like, assuming they don’t encroach upon the freedom of others.        
    right to pursue happiness Within a rights ethical theory, the guarantee that individuals may seek happiness any way they like, assuming they don’t encroach upon the freedom of others.        
    right to religious expression Within a rights ethical theory, the guarantee that individuals may express religious beliefs freely, assuming their acts don’t encroach upon the freedom of others.        
    right to religious expression Within a rights ethical theory, the guarantee that individuals may express religious beliefs freely, assuming their acts don’t encroach upon the freedom of others.        
    right to self-definition The claim that each of us is uniquely qualified to define who we are and which desires guide our life; possessing the right is also a responsibility to express it.        
    right to self-definition The claim that each of us is uniquely qualified to define who we are and which desires guide our life; possessing the right is also a responsibility to express it.        
    rights argument Arrayed to defend the ethical respectability of the star system, it affirms that disallowing accumulations is a violation of human freedom.        
    rights argument Arrayed to defend the ethical respectability of the star system, it affirms that disallowing accumulations is a violation of human freedom.        
    Rights arguments against discrimination The argument that discrimination is wrong because as humans we’re endowed with a certain dignity and freedom that is abridged by discrimination.        
    Rights arguments against discrimination The argument that discrimination is wrong because as humans we’re endowed with a certain dignity and freedom that is abridged by discrimination.        
    rule The ethical belief that a rule for action is recommended if collective obedience to the rule increases net happiness when everyone is taken into account.        
    rule The ethical belief that a rule for action is recommended if collective obedience to the rule increases net happiness when everyone is taken into account.        
    salary How much money someone makes at work.        
    salary How much money someone makes at work.        
    Samaritanism The ethical responsibility to step in and help others when it’s possible to help and when the personal cost is not disproportionate to the good that can be done.        
    Samaritanism The ethical responsibility to step in and help others when it’s possible to help and when the personal cost is not disproportionate to the good that can be done.        
    Sarbanes-Oxley Act Passed in 2002 by the federal government, the legislation regulates some businesses’ finances and transparency. The act also provides some protection to some whistle-blowers.        
    Sarbanes-Oxley Act Passed in 2002 by the federal government, the legislation regulates some businesses’ finances and transparency. The act also provides some protection to some whistle-blowers.        
    security The degree to which a job guarantees continuity and stability of employment.        
    security The degree to which a job guarantees continuity and stability of employment.        
    self-selective process A process where individuals effectively select themselves into a group as opposed to being selected by others.        
    self-selective process A process where individuals effectively select themselves into a group as opposed to being selected by others.        
    selflessness Acting without regard for one’s own well-being. This does not necessarily imply acting in favor of the well-being of others.        
    selflessness Acting without regard for one’s own well-being. This does not necessarily imply acting in favor of the well-being of others.        
    seniority The ranking of employees in terms of how long they’ve been working in the organization.        
    seniority The ranking of employees in terms of how long they’ve been working in the organization.        
    Seniority The measure of how long an employee has been laboring in an organization. With respect to salary, this measure converts to a place on the wage scale.        
    Seniority The measure of how long an employee has been laboring in an organization. With respect to salary, this measure converts to a place on the wage scale.        
    Sexual harassment Unwelcome sexual advances or conduct that creates a hostile work environment.        
    Sexual harassment Unwelcome sexual advances or conduct that creates a hostile work environment.        
    Sincerity The ability to reveal yourself to others with confidence that you’ll be respected. It fits between the extremes of frigidity and emotional outpouring.        
    Sincerity The ability to reveal yourself to others with confidence that you’ll be respected. It fits between the extremes of frigidity and emotional outpouring.        
    Skill tests Applicant tests that reproduce jobs tasks.        
    Skill tests Applicant tests that reproduce jobs tasks.        
    Skill theft Taking specific, job-related abilities acquired at one organization to another—especially a competitor.        
    Skill theft Taking specific, job-related abilities acquired at one organization to another—especially a competitor.        
    slippery slope The idea that once you start doing something, it’ll be difficult to stop doing more and more of it.        
    slippery slope The idea that once you start doing something, it’ll be difficult to stop doing more and more of it.        
    Social cause activism As an aspect of organizational culture, the degree to which an organization and its members participate in social causes not directly related to work endeavors.        
    Social cause activism As an aspect of organizational culture, the degree to which an organization and its members participate in social causes not directly related to work endeavors.        
    social conditioning A set of social cues and pressures provided by the actions and habits of an organization’s member that guide new members toward how they are to act within the organization.        
    social conditioning A set of social cues and pressures provided by the actions and habits of an organization’s member that guide new members toward how they are to act within the organization.        
    social contract An agreement made between people to act in certain ways not because the acts are themselves good or bad, but because the rules for action are mutually beneficial.        
    social contract An agreement made between people to act in certain ways not because the acts are themselves good or bad, but because the rules for action are mutually beneficial.        
    social fairness The doctrine that societies in different places or times should be treated equitably.        
    social fairness The doctrine that societies in different places or times should be treated equitably.        
    Social media Screening job applications whose social media pages—Facebook and similar—suggest irresponsibility or unfitness for a post.        
    Social media Screening job applications whose social media pages—Facebook and similar—suggest irresponsibility or unfitness for a post.        
    social paradigm shifts An abrupt change in a social attitude.        
    social paradigm shifts An abrupt change in a social attitude.        
    social precedent The belief that ingrained customs and habits explain divergent career paths for men and women.        
    social precedent The belief that ingrained customs and habits explain divergent career paths for men and women.        
    social welfare argument Set against the star system, it’s the argument that extreme wealth disparities are ethically reproachable because of the emotional turmoil they cause within a community.        
    social welfare argument Set against the star system, it’s the argument that extreme wealth disparities are ethically reproachable because of the emotional turmoil they cause within a community.        
    socialism In the economic world, the subordination of individual liberty to the general welfare.        
    socialism In the economic world, the subordination of individual liberty to the general welfare.        
    sole proprietorship A business owned by a single individual.        
    sole proprietorship A business owned by a single individual.        
    Solidarity The moral obligation to share in the struggles of others facing challenges similar to those we face.        
    Solidarity The moral obligation to share in the struggles of others facing challenges similar to those we face.        
    Stakeholder All those who have a stake in an organization’s decisions.        
    Stakeholder All those who have a stake in an organization’s decisions.        
    star system In the economic world, a winner-take-almost-all structure for distributing wealth.        
    star system In the economic world, a winner-take-almost-all structure for distributing wealth.        
    statistical evidence of racism Evidence of racism in society gleaned from statistics.        
    statistical evidence of racism Evidence of racism in society gleaned from statistics.        
    Status As attached to the economic world, the special privileges and respect one receives because one holds a certain position.        
    Status As attached to the economic world, the special privileges and respect one receives because one holds a certain position.        
    strict product liability The doctrine that manufacturers are legally liable for product defects no matter how much care may have been taken to prevent them.        
    strict product liability The doctrine that manufacturers are legally liable for product defects no matter how much care may have been taken to prevent them.        
    strikebreakers They occupy the posts of striking workers during walkouts, alleviating pressure on employers.        
    strikebreakers They occupy the posts of striking workers during walkouts, alleviating pressure on employers.        
    strikes Workers collectively walking off the jobsite in an attempt to pressure employers to accede to their demands.        
    strikes Workers collectively walking off the jobsite in an attempt to pressure employers to accede to their demands.        
    Strong victimization Claiming to suffer discrimination where it doesn’t exist and using the claim to abuse others.        
    Strong victimization Claiming to suffer discrimination where it doesn’t exist and using the claim to abuse others.        
    Sustainability The concept of acting to protect both the environment and people surrounding an operation, so that they may continue to contribute to the enterprise.        
    Sustainability The concept of acting to protect both the environment and people surrounding an operation, so that they may continue to contribute to the enterprise.        
    Tattling Using a third-party obligation as an excuse for sabotaging a workmate.        
    Tattling Using a third-party obligation as an excuse for sabotaging a workmate.        
    Temperance The virtue of self-control and the ability to patiently delay gratification.        
    Temperance The virtue of self-control and the ability to patiently delay gratification.        
    the eternal return of the same A thought experiment in which you imagine what you would do if the life you chose to lead now will have to be repeated forever.        
    the eternal return of the same A thought experiment in which you imagine what you would do if the life you chose to lead now will have to be repeated forever.        
    Theoretical wisdom As a virtue, it’s both the ability to learn high-level, theoretical knowledge and the accumulated possession of that knowledge.        
    Theoretical wisdom As a virtue, it’s both the ability to learn high-level, theoretical knowledge and the accumulated possession of that knowledge.        
    third party A person exposed to, and caught up in a situation of conflict or ethical tension between others.        
    third party A person exposed to, and caught up in a situation of conflict or ethical tension between others.        
    third-party obligation An obligation by a third party to respond to an ethical tension directly caused by others.        
    third-party obligation An obligation by a third party to respond to an ethical tension directly caused by others.        
    Time abuse The use of company time for activities unrelated to work, including looking for a job elsewhere.        
    Time abuse The use of company time for activities unrelated to work, including looking for a job elsewhere.        
    to develop our abilities and talents The ethical duty to ourselves, requiring us to respect our innate abilities—especially the exemplary ones—by working them out to their full potential.        
    to develop our abilities and talents The ethical duty to ourselves, requiring us to respect our innate abilities—especially the exemplary ones—by working them out to their full potential.        
    Trade secrets Ideas, technologies, and business strategies owned and maintained in secret by an organization. Typically they provide a competitive advantage.        
    Trade secrets Ideas, technologies, and business strategies owned and maintained in secret by an organization. Typically they provide a competitive advantage.        
    transactional Advertising directly about the exchange of money for a good or service.        
    transactional Advertising directly about the exchange of money for a good or service.        
    transactional leadership Leadership dedicated to getting the members of an organization onboard through give and take, and inclusion.        
    transactional leadership Leadership dedicated to getting the members of an organization onboard through give and take, and inclusion.        
    transformational leadership The ability to transform the members of an organization into devoted and unselfish advocates of its goals.        
    transformational leadership The ability to transform the members of an organization into devoted and unselfish advocates of its goals.        
    triple bottom line A form of corporate social responsibility dictating that corporate leaders tabulate results not only in economic terms but also in terms of company effects in the social realm and with respect to the environment.        
    triple bottom line A form of corporate social responsibility dictating that corporate leaders tabulate results not only in economic terms but also in terms of company effects in the social realm and with respect to the environment.        
    union shop A workplace where all employees are required to join the local union, or at least pay the dues associated with joining.        
    union shop A workplace where all employees are required to join the local union, or at least pay the dues associated with joining.        
    universal A physical or cultural characteristic that may make one a target of discrimination and that everyone has.        
    universal A physical or cultural characteristic that may make one a target of discrimination and that everyone has.        
    universalized Within Kant’s theory of the categorical imperative, an action that could be carried out by everyone all the time. For example, telling the truth.        
    universalized Within Kant’s theory of the categorical imperative, an action that could be carried out by everyone all the time. For example, telling the truth.        
    unlimited liability The owner’s or owners’ legal responsibility in the face of all claims made against a company.        
    unlimited liability The owner’s or owners’ legal responsibility in the face of all claims made against a company.        
    utilitarian argument The argument that discrimination is wrong because it fails to maximize our collective happiness and welfare.        
    utilitarian argument The argument that discrimination is wrong because it fails to maximize our collective happiness and welfare.        
    utilitarian argument Defends the star system as ethically acceptable by claiming that the general welfare can be served by wealth imbalances in society.        
    utilitarian argument Defends the star system as ethically acceptable by claiming that the general welfare can be served by wealth imbalances in society.        
    utilitarian monster An individual capable of feeling disproportionately high sensations of pleasure and happiness, one who consequently requires many others to sacrifice their happiness in the name of maximizing net happiness.        
    utilitarian monster An individual capable of feeling disproportionately high sensations of pleasure and happiness, one who consequently requires many others to sacrifice their happiness in the name of maximizing net happiness.        
    utilitarian sacrifice An individual whose happiness is sacrificed in order to increase the happiness of others.        
    utilitarian sacrifice An individual whose happiness is sacrificed in order to increase the happiness of others.        
    Utility A general term for usefulness and benefit that serves as the root for the theory named utilitarianism.        
    Utility A general term for usefulness and benefit that serves as the root for the theory named utilitarianism.        
    utilization analysis A study of whether an organization is taking full advantage of the human resources available in its geographic area.        
    utilization analysis A study of whether an organization is taking full advantage of the human resources available in its geographic area.        
    valid argument An argument where the conclusion necessarily follows from the premises. This doesn’t mean the conclusion is true, but if the premises are true, then the conclusion must be too.        
    valid argument An argument where the conclusion necessarily follows from the premises. This doesn’t mean the conclusion is true, but if the premises are true, then the conclusion must be too.        
    value generated for society As a formula for wage distribution, the assignment of wages to reward those performing tasks that provide happiness as measured across an entire community.        
    value generated for society As a formula for wage distribution, the assignment of wages to reward those performing tasks that provide happiness as measured across an entire community.        
    value to the organization A measure of an employee’s worth in terms of how much of the company’s value and profit the employee generates.        
    value to the organization A measure of an employee’s worth in terms of how much of the company’s value and profit the employee generates.        
    veil of ignorance The idea that when you set up rules for resolving dilemmas, you don’t get to know beforehand which side of the rules you will fall on.        
    veil of ignorance The idea that when you set up rules for resolving dilemmas, you don’t get to know beforehand which side of the rules you will fall on.        
    veil of ignorance test Imagining how you’d like society to be if you don’t know beforehand where you’ll be placed in it and using that image to test current reality.        
    veil of ignorance test Imagining how you’d like society to be if you don’t know beforehand where you’ll be placed in it and using that image to test current reality.        
    Vertical wealth imbalances The distance between the top earners and the typical ones.        
    Vertical wealth imbalances The distance between the top earners and the typical ones.        
    Victimhood Within the field of sexual harrasment, falsely accusing another of harassment as a way of injuring him or her.        
    Victimhood Within the field of sexual harrasment, falsely accusing another of harassment as a way of injuring him or her.        
    viral advertising The exploitation of consumers to do a company’s promotional work.        
    viral advertising The exploitation of consumers to do a company’s promotional work.        
    virtue argument Set against high wealth concentration, it recommends that formulas for wealth distribution avoid extremes.        
    virtue argument Set against high wealth concentration, it recommends that formulas for wealth distribution avoid extremes.        
    wage confidentiality The policy that salaries of employees within an organization will not be disclosed to third parties.        
    wage confidentiality The policy that salaries of employees within an organization will not be disclosed to third parties.        
    Weak victimization Using discrimination as an excuse for one’s own failures.        
    Weak victimization Using discrimination as an excuse for one’s own failures.        
    weaponized ethics Using ethical rules against the interests of others for personal gain.        
    weaponized ethics Using ethical rules against the interests of others for personal gain.        
    welfare rights Within a rights ethical theory, obligations society holds to provide minimal conditions allowing individuals their free pursuit of happiness.        
    welfare rights Within a rights ethical theory, obligations society holds to provide minimal conditions allowing individuals their free pursuit of happiness.        
    Whistle-blowing Bringing to light outside the organization information about misdeeds by the organization or by an individual within the organization.        
    Whistle-blowing Bringing to light outside the organization information about misdeeds by the organization or by an individual within the organization.        
    work incentive Money or other benefit offered to workers to increase the quality or volume of their work.        
    work incentive Money or other benefit offered to workers to increase the quality or volume of their work.        
    work performance A measure of how well an employee is performing the duties of the job.        
    work performance A measure of how well an employee is performing the duties of the job.        
    workers or people doing work As an aspect of organizational culture, the degree to which an organization’s members are valued as integral people with aspirations beyond those of the organization.        
    workers or people doing work As an aspect of organizational culture, the degree to which an organization’s members are valued as integral people with aspirations beyond those of the organization.        
    workplace mood As an aspect of organizational culture, the mood at work on a typical day.        
    workplace mood As an aspect of organizational culture, the mood at work on a typical day.        
    workplace personalized As an aspect of organizational culture, the extent to which an organization’s members make their physical space at work their own space.        
    workplace personalized As an aspect of organizational culture, the extent to which an organization’s members make their physical space at work their own space.        
    workplace time As an aspect of organizational culture, the way time is understood and valued in the workplace.        
    workplace time As an aspect of organizational culture, the way time is understood and valued in the workplace.