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Business LibreTexts Production Processes

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    What you’ll learn to do: describe the four main categories of production processes

    Even though you may not spend a lot of time thinking about the processes used to make different products, they surround you every day. Every time you come in your front door or eat a meal or even drive your car, you interact with things that were made by combinations of job-based, batch, mass, and flow production processes: they were all produced or manufactured by someone, somewhere, and a great deal of thought and planning were needed to make them available.

    Businesses know what they want to produce, but the challenge is to select a process that will maximize the productivity and efficiency of production. Senior management looks to their operations managers to inform this decision. As we examine the four major types of production processes, keep in mind that the most successful organizations are those that have their process and product aligned.

    Learning Objectives

    • Describe batch production
    • Describe mass production

    Project- or Job-Based Production

    Project-based production is one-of-a-kind production in which only one unit is manufactured at a time. This type of production is often used for very large projects or for individual customers. Because the customer’s needs and preferences play such a decisive role in the final output, it’s essential for the operations manager to maintain open and frequent communication with that customer. The workers involved in this type of production are highly skilled or specialists in their field.

    The following are examples of project- or job-based production:

    • custom home construction
    • haircuts
    • yachts

    Consider the home in which you live. When the house was built, the contractor used a job process, and highly skilled workers were brought in to install the plumbing, heating, and electrical systems.

    custom prints

    For example, a print shop may handle a variety of projects, including newsletters, brochures, stationery, and reports. Each print job varies in quantity, type of printing process, binding, color of ink, and type of paper. A manufacturing firm that produces goods in response to customer orders is called a job shop.

    Some types of service businesses also deliver customized services. Doctors, for instance, must consider the illnesses and circumstances of each individual patient before developing a customized treatment plan. Real estate agents may develop a customized service plan for each customer based on the type of house the person is selling or wants to buy.


    • Unique, high quality products are made.
    • Workers are often more motivated and take pride in their work.
    • Products are made according to individual customer needs and improve customer satisfaction
    • Production is easy to organize


    • Very labour intensive, so selling prices are usually higher.
    • Production can take a long time and can have higher production cost, (e.g., if special materials or tools are required)

    Batch Production

    Batch production is a method used to produce similar items in groups, stage by stage. In batch production, the product goes through each stage of the process together before moving on to the next stage. The degree to which workers are involved in this type of production depends on the type of product. It is common for machinery to be used for the actual production and workers participate only at the beginning and end of the process.

    Examples of batch production include the following:

    • bakeries
    • textiles
    • furniture

    Example \(\PageIndex{1}\)

    American Leather, a Dallas-based furniture manufacturer, uses mass customization to produce couches and chairs to customer specifications within 30 days. The basic frames in the furniture are the same, but automated cutting machinery precuts the color and type of leather ordered by each customer. Using mass-production techniques, they are then added to each frame.


    • Since larger numbers are made, unit costs are lower.
    • Offers the customer some variety and choice.
    • Materials can be bought in bulk, so they are cheap.
    • Production is flexible since different batches are made
    • Workers specialize in one process


    • Workers are often less motivated because the work becomes repetitive.
    • Initial set-up costs are high.
    • Expensive to move products around the workplace.
    • Storage space will be needed to store raw materials.

    Mass Production

    Mass production, manufacturing many identical goods at once, was a product of the Industrial Revolution. Henry Ford’s Model-T automobile is a good example of early mass production. Each car turned out by Ford’s factory was identical, right down to its color. If you wanted a car in any color except black, you were out of luck. Canned goods, over-the-counter drugs, and household appliances are other examples of goods that are mass-produced. The emphasis in mass production is on keeping manufacturing costs low by producing uniform products using repetitive and standardized processes. As products became more complicated to produce, mass production also became more complex. Automobile manufacturers, for example, must now incorporate more sophisticated electronics into their car designs. As a result, the number of assembly stations in most automobile manufacturing plants has increased.


    Watch the following video on the process used to manufacture the amazing Peep. It will serve as a point of reference because it features many of the process components we will be discussing in this reading.


    • Labour costs are usually lower
    • Materials can be purchased in large quantities, so they are often cheaper
    • Large number of goods are produced
    • Unit costs are relatively low


    • Machinery is very expensive to buy, so production lines are very expensive to set up.
    • Workers are not very motivated, since their work is very repetitive.
    • Not very flexible, as a production line is difficult to adapt.
    • If one part of the line breaks, the whole production process will have to stop until it is repaired.delay the production process
    • Maintenance cost are very high Production Processes is shared under a not declared license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by LibreTexts.

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