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Glossary

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    54133
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    Glossary Entries
    Word(s) Definition Image Caption Link Source
    “360” deals A coordinated marketing campaign that includes album sales, concert tickets, and merchandise; also called multiple rights.        
    80/20 rule This is a rough rule of thumb that says 20 percent of customers buy 80 percent of a product.        
    A-B test Metric obtained by showing one execution of a commercial to a select group of viewers in one part of a city and a different version to another group elsewhere, then examining the product’s sales in each area.        
    Account managers Agency executives who work with clients to develop the complete promotion plan.        
    Account managers Agency employees who act as the client’s representative, getting the best work from the agency while still generating a profit for the agency.        
    Account managers Agency executives who work with clients to develop the complete promotion plan.        
    Account managers Agency employees who act as the client’s representative, getting the best work from the agency while still generating a profit for the agency.        
    account planners Agency employees who work with clients to obtain or conduct market research that will help clients understand their markets and audiences.        
    account planners Agency employees who work with clients to obtain or conduct market research that will help clients understand their markets and audiences.        
    Actuals The final cost of a job upon completion.        
    Actuals The final cost of a job upon completion.        
    ad-to-sales ratio The relationship between a company’s promotional budget and its sales; this ratio is important to business analysts in assessing a company’s health.        
    ad-to-sales ratio The relationship between a company’s promotional budget and its sales; this ratio is important to business analysts in assessing a company’s health.        
    added-value Exposure negotiated by the media buyer in a media buy; it can include extra pages, surveys, direct mail pieces, and other incentives for spending with a particular publication, site, or station.        
    added-value Exposure negotiated by the media buyer in a media buy; it can include extra pages, surveys, direct mail pieces, and other incentives for spending with a particular publication, site, or station.        
    Advergaming New media technology that brings ads for real-world brands into a video game.        
    Advergaming New media technology that brings ads for real-world brands into a video game.        
    Advertising Nonpersonal communication from an identified sponsor intended to inform consumers or persuade or remind them to buy a certain product or service.        
    Advertising Nonpersonal communication from an identified sponsor intended to inform consumers or persuade or remind them to buy a certain product or service.        
    advertising director Employee in a media company who heads the advertising sales department and oversees advertising rate policies, promotion, and the sales staff, including sales planners and sales reps.        
    advertising director Employee in a media company who heads the advertising sales department and oversees advertising rate policies, promotion, and the sales staff, including sales planners and sales reps.        
    advocacy advertising Campaigns designed to influence public opinion about an issue relevant to some or all members of a society, espousing a particular point of view that not everyone may share.        
    advocacy advertising Campaigns designed to influence public opinion about an issue relevant to some or all members of a society, espousing a particular point of view that not everyone may share.        
    agency of record Agency that has the closest relationship with the marketer in terms of strategy and spending. The marketer determines their agency of record, and the majority of business and coordination is handled through them.        
    agency of record Agency that has the closest relationship with the marketer in terms of strategy and spending. The marketer determines their agency of record, and the majority of business and coordination is handled through them.        
    allegory A literary device that tells a story about an abstract trait or concept that a person, animal, or vegetable stands for.        
    allegory A literary device that tells a story about an abstract trait or concept that a person, animal, or vegetable stands for.        
    alternate reality games New media platform in which fans interact with the company as they try to solve a puzzle, mystery, or staged crime.        
    alternate reality games New media platform in which fans interact with the company as they try to solve a puzzle, mystery, or staged crime.        
    ambush marketing Advertising by companies who are not an official sponsor of an event but give the impression that they also are underwriting it.        
    ambush marketing Advertising by companies who are not an official sponsor of an event but give the impression that they also are underwriting it.        
    aperture The “window” delineating when and where an advertiser can reach the target market for a communication.        
    aperture The “window” delineating when and where an advertiser can reach the target market for a communication.        
    appeal A psychological basis that motivates the viewer toward the advertiser’s goals.        
    appeal A psychological basis that motivates the viewer toward the advertiser’s goals.        
    art director The chief designer of the ad, responsible for using principles of design to create the ad’s visuals and unify its elements and for deciding how the message will communicate the desired mood, product qualities, and psychological appeals.        
    art director The chief designer of the ad, responsible for using principles of design to create the ad’s visuals and unify its elements and for deciding how the message will communicate the desired mood, product qualities, and psychological appeals.        
    Art studios and design firms Ancillary companies that support ad agencies by creating a client’s logo, stationery, business cards, and packaging design for products.        
    Art studios and design firms Ancillary companies that support ad agencies by creating a client’s logo, stationery, business cards, and packaging design for products.        
    associative network Mental system that contains many bits of information we see as related and stores each incoming piece of information with other, related pieces.        
    associative network Mental system that contains many bits of information we see as related and stores each incoming piece of information with other, related pieces.        
    Asymmetric Communications SS+K’s trademarked technique of mapping their client’s issue, brand, competition, and target audience to develop a big idea that will drive their marketing and communications.        
    Asymmetric Communications SS+K’s trademarked technique of mapping their client’s issue, brand, competition, and target audience to develop a big idea that will drive their marketing and communications.        
    asymmetric communications brief Document summarizing the consumer’s current state and what the agency needs to do to show how the product or service will improve upon this state.        
    asymmetric communications brief Document summarizing the consumer’s current state and what the agency needs to do to show how the product or service will improve upon this state.        
    Asymmetric Idea SS+K’s method of engaging the audience in surprising ways and uncovering opportunities to connect with them.        
    Asymmetric Idea SS+K’s method of engaging the audience in surprising ways and uncovering opportunities to connect with them.        
    attitude A predisposition to evaluate an object or product positively or negatively; attitudes involve cognition, affect, and behavior.        
    attitude A predisposition to evaluate an object or product positively or negatively; attitudes involve cognition, affect, and behavior.        
    avatars Digital representations of people.        
    avatars Digital representations of people.        
    Awareness The first step in introducing a new product or brand: letting consumers know it exists.        
    Awareness The first step in introducing a new product or brand: letting consumers know it exists.        
    barrier to entry An obstacle that makes it more difficult for competitors to introduce their product to the marketplace.        
    barrier to entry An obstacle that makes it more difficult for competitors to introduce their product to the marketplace.        
    Behavior What consumers intend to do regarding a product.        
    Behavior What consumers intend to do regarding a product.        
    Behavioral learning theories Perspectives based on the idea that learning takes place as the result of responses to external events.        
    Behavioral learning theories Perspectives based on the idea that learning takes place as the result of responses to external events.        
    Behavioral segmentation Slices the market in terms of participation or nonparticipation in an activity.        
    Behavioral segmentation Slices the market in terms of participation or nonparticipation in an activity.        
    behavioral targeting In online marketing, the use of key demographic data, such as the user’s address, age, interests, and browsing history, to plan online media.        
    behavioral targeting In online marketing, the use of key demographic data, such as the user’s address, age, interests, and browsing history, to plan online media.        
    Behavioral targeting In online marketing, the use of key demographic data, such as the user’s address, age, interests, and browsing history, to plan online media.        
    Behavioral targeting In online marketing, the use of key demographic data, such as the user’s address, age, interests, and browsing history, to plan online media.        
    Behavioral targeting Putting ads in front of people customized to their Internet use.        
    Behavioral targeting Putting ads in front of people customized to their Internet use.        
    benefit Anything that, when delivered, satisfies a need.        
    benefit Anything that, when delivered, satisfies a need.        
    bid The estimated cost that a vendor will charge for a service.        
    bid The estimated cost that a vendor will charge for a service.        
    bitcoms A set of ads inserted within a TV show, often introduced by a stand-up comedian (perhaps an actor in the show itself) performing a small set that leads into the actual ads.        
    bitcoms A set of ads inserted within a TV show, often introduced by a stand-up comedian (perhaps an actor in the show itself) performing a small set that leads into the actual ads.        
    blogosphere The universe of blogs.        
    blogosphere The universe of blogs.        
    Body image A person’s subjective evaluation of his or her physical self.        
    Body image A person’s subjective evaluation of his or her physical self.        
    Bonus packs A tool in the promotional mix that packages an extra amount of the product for the same price; may be timed to economic cycles.        
    Bonus packs A tool in the promotional mix that packages an extra amount of the product for the same price; may be timed to economic cycles.        
    bottom-up budgeting Method in which a company begins the promotional budgeting process each year with a clean slate, identifying promotional goals and allocating enough money to achieve those goals.        
    bottom-up budgeting Method in which a company begins the promotional budgeting process each year with a clean slate, identifying promotional goals and allocating enough money to achieve those goals.        
    brand audit Assessment that examines the health of a brand and identifies areas of additional value and ways to improve brand equity.        
    brand audit Assessment that examines the health of a brand and identifies areas of additional value and ways to improve brand equity.        
    brand equity The value of a brand name over and above the value of a generic product in the same category.        
    brand equity The value of a brand name over and above the value of a generic product in the same category.        
    brand guidelines A set of principles, established and approved by the agency and the client, that dictate how the brand should behave, look, and feel, staking out a clear brand identity.        
    brand guidelines A set of principles, established and approved by the agency and the client, that dictate how the brand should behave, look, and feel, staking out a clear brand identity.        
    Brand loyalty A heuristic that simplifies the decision-making process for consumers: they buy the brand that they’ve always bought before.        
    Brand loyalty A heuristic that simplifies the decision-making process for consumers: they buy the brand that they’ve always bought before.        
    Brand managers Employees of a company that produces goods or services to be advertised, who are responsible for all the advertising and marketing for their product or brand.        
    Brand managers Employees of a company that produces goods or services to be advertised, who are responsible for all the advertising and marketing for their product or brand.        
    brand manifesto Both a written and a visual statement used to help internal and external audiences understand what the brand stands for; it is not a marketing campaign or a reflection of the final advertising material.        
    brand manifesto Both a written and a visual statement used to help internal and external audiences understand what the brand stands for; it is not a marketing campaign or a reflection of the final advertising material.        
    brand personality A set of traits that people attribute to a product as if it were a person.        
    brand personality A set of traits that people attribute to a product as if it were a person.        
    brand switching Persuading the customer to change from one brand to another.        
    brand switching Persuading the customer to change from one brand to another.        
    branded entertainment New media technique in which advertisers showcase their products via longer-form narrative films instead of brief commercials.        
    branded entertainment New media technique in which advertisers showcase their products via longer-form narrative films instead of brief commercials.        
    branded entertainment New media technique in which advertisers showcase their products via longer-form narrative films instead of brief commercials.        
    branded entertainment New media technique in which advertisers showcase their products via longer-form narrative films instead of brief commercials.        
    brandfests An event sponsored by the maker of a brand that brings together owners to “bond” with fellow enthusiasts and strengthen their identification with the product.        
    brandfests An event sponsored by the maker of a brand that brings together owners to “bond” with fellow enthusiasts and strengthen their identification with the product.        
    Branding A way to distinguish a particular product or service from others using a trademarked name or logo.        
    Branding A way to distinguish a particular product or service from others using a trademarked name or logo.        
    broadcast media Radio and television.        
    broadcast media Radio and television.        
    buying center A group of people in a business who are involved in the decision-making process for corporate purchases.        
    buying center A group of people in a business who are involved in the decision-making process for corporate purchases.        
    Buzz New media technique involving creating a newsworthy event to get news coverage for a product or brand.        
    Buzz New media technique involving creating a newsworthy event to get news coverage for a product or brand.        
    camera angle A key decision creatives make on a photo shoot; camera angle establishes a relationship between the viewer and the image, making the viewer dominant, subservient, or equal.        
    camera angle A key decision creatives make on a photo shoot; camera angle establishes a relationship between the viewer and the image, making the viewer dominant, subservient, or equal.        
    Case allowances A tool in the promotional mix in which a manufacturer offers a discount to the channel partner based on the volume of products it buys during the deal period.        
    Case allowances A tool in the promotional mix in which a manufacturer offers a discount to the channel partner based on the volume of products it buys during the deal period.        
    chemistry meeting Based on the responses to the RFP, the client will invite select agencies to meet in person. This meeting is designed to allow the companies to determine how well they like each other and if there is “chemistry” between them.        
    chemistry meeting Based on the responses to the RFP, the client will invite select agencies to meet in person. This meeting is designed to allow the companies to determine how well they like each other and if there is “chemistry” between them.        
    chief marketing officer (CMO) A company’s key executive responsible for achieving goals in all market segments.        
    chief marketing officer (CMO) A company’s key executive responsible for achieving goals in all market segments.        
    Cinema advertising Form of out-of-home media used at movie theaters.        
    Cinema advertising Form of out-of-home media used at movie theaters.        
    click-through rate The data that tells an advertiser how many people click on a link in an online ad to learn more about the advertised product.        
    click-through rate The data that tells an advertiser how many people click on a link in an online ad to learn more about the advertised product.        
    cognitive learning theory Approaches that stress the importance of internal mental processes, viewing people as problem solvers who actively use information, creativity, and insight.        
    cognitive learning theory Approaches that stress the importance of internal mental processes, viewing people as problem solvers who actively use information, creativity, and insight.        
    communications brief A written report that forms the basis for an entire ad campaign.        
    communications brief A written report that forms the basis for an entire ad campaign.        
    Comparative messages Advertising that explicitly trumpets a brand’s virtues vis-à-vis one or more named competitors.        
    Comparative messages Advertising that explicitly trumpets a brand’s virtues vis-à-vis one or more named competitors.        
    concept design Phase of the creative process in which the concept is developed and articulated in response to research findings.        
    concept design Phase of the creative process in which the concept is developed and articulated in response to research findings.        
    Concept testing Phase of the creative process in which consumers evaluate a new ad or product idea before the advertiser spends large sums of money finishing the product or creating the ad campaign.        
    Concept testing Phase of the creative process in which consumers evaluate a new ad or product idea before the advertiser spends large sums of money finishing the product or creating the ad campaign.        
    conscientious consumerism Consumers’ demand for products and services that are good for their bodies, good for their community, and good for the earth.        
    conscientious consumerism Consumers’ demand for products and services that are good for their bodies, good for their community, and good for the earth.        
    consumer packaged goods (CPG) companies Producers of food and beverages, cleaning products and paper goods, apparel, and other items that a typical consumer purchases on a regular and frequent basis.        
    consumer packaged goods (CPG) companies Producers of food and beverages, cleaning products and paper goods, apparel, and other items that a typical consumer purchases on a regular and frequent basis.        
    consumer tribe A group of people who identify with one another because of a shared allegiance to an activity or a product.        
    consumer tribe A group of people who identify with one another because of a shared allegiance to an activity or a product.        
    conversion rate The percentage of visitors to an online store who purchase from it.        
    conversion rate The percentage of visitors to an online store who purchase from it.        
    cookies Files that get inserted into computers by Web sites that tell Web site owners and advertisers who views that page.        
    cookies Files that get inserted into computers by Web sites that tell Web site owners and advertisers who views that page.        
    cookies Files that get inserted into computers by Web sites that tell Web site owners and advertisers who views that page.        
    cookies Files that get inserted into computers by Web sites that tell Web site owners and advertisers who views that page.        
    cooperative advertising Strategy in which two or more channel partners agree to promote a product jointly.        
    cooperative advertising Strategy in which two or more channel partners agree to promote a product jointly.        
    Copy research Evidence that an ad gets the audience’s attention and delivers a message; effectiveness is judged in pretesting and posttesting and is gauged by attention, branding, and motivation.        
    Copy research Evidence that an ad gets the audience’s attention and delivers a message; effectiveness is judged in pretesting and posttesting and is gauged by attention, branding, and motivation.        
    copy testing Testing that is done before launching the campaign, comparing one type of execution over another, or one kind of product feature, benefit, or price over another; it aims to fine-tune the ad.        
    copy testing Testing that is done before launching the campaign, comparing one type of execution over another, or one kind of product feature, benefit, or price over another; it aims to fine-tune the ad.        
    Copywriters Member of the creative team who composes memorable and motivating text that will be spoken or printed within the ad.        
    Copywriters Member of the creative team who composes memorable and motivating text that will be spoken or printed within the ad.        
    core product The basic good or service that is being sold.        
    core product The basic good or service that is being sold.        
    cost per thousand (CPM) Metric that reflects the cost to deliver a message to one thousand people.        
    cost per thousand (CPM) Metric that reflects the cost to deliver a message to one thousand people.        
    cost per thousand (CPM) Metric that reflects the cost to deliver a message to one thousand people.        
    cost per thousand (CPM) Metric that reflects the cost to deliver a message to one thousand people.        
    counterarguing Reaction to an ad message in which a consumer thinks of reasons not to agree with the message.        
    counterarguing Reaction to an ad message in which a consumer thinks of reasons not to agree with the message.        
    coupons A tool in the promotional mix that offers consumers cents off the price and has an expiration date of a few months out, encouraging immediate purchase.        
    coupons A tool in the promotional mix that offers consumers cents off the price and has an expiration date of a few months out, encouraging immediate purchase.        
    creative brief Document that outlines the information and objectives to inspire the creative idea, including what the advertising is trying to achieve, the main idea to be communicated, and the target audience.        
    creative brief Document that outlines the information and objectives to inspire the creative idea, including what the advertising is trying to achieve, the main idea to be communicated, and the target audience.        
    creative objectives Plans that define the form and content of the advertising, including the message, emotional tone, and production objectives.        
    creative objectives Plans that define the form and content of the advertising, including the message, emotional tone, and production objectives.        
    Creative services staff Agency employees such as art directors or copywriters who work with clients to develop concepts and messages.        
    Creative services staff Agency employees such as art directors or copywriters who work with clients to develop concepts and messages.        
    Creative strategy Description of what the advertiser’s message will say and how it will say it.        
    Creative strategy Description of what the advertiser’s message will say and how it will say it.        
    crisis management Public relations tool used when a negative event (a product defect, a serious accident, executive malfeasance) happens to the company; usually handled by appointing a single spokesperson to communicate with the media.        
    crisis management Public relations tool used when a negative event (a product defect, a serious accident, executive malfeasance) happens to the company; usually handled by appointing a single spokesperson to communicate with the media.        
    Culture The accumulation of shared meanings, rituals, norms, and traditions among the members of an organization or society.        
    Culture The accumulation of shared meanings, rituals, norms, and traditions among the members of an organization or society.        
    culture jamming Efforts such as Buy Nothing Day and TV Turnoff Week, intended to discourage rampant commercialism.        
    culture jamming Efforts such as Buy Nothing Day and TV Turnoff Week, intended to discourage rampant commercialism.        
    customer relationship management (CRM) Marketing that uses specific database marketing information about individual customers to create more effective marketing communications specific to them.        
    customer relationship management (CRM) Marketing that uses specific database marketing information about individual customers to create more effective marketing communications specific to them.        
    DAGMAR model Defining Advertising Goals for Measured Advertising Results: a way to set objectives and measure the results of advertising, developed by Russell Colley, involving four steps: awareness, comprehension, conviction, and action.        
    DAGMAR model Defining Advertising Goals for Measured Advertising Results: a way to set objectives and measure the results of advertising, developed by Russell Colley, involving four steps: awareness, comprehension, conviction, and action.        
    Database marketing A system of marketing that collects information on consumers such as name, purchasing profile, demographics, and credit rating and uses it to build a long-term relationship with a customer.        
    Database marketing A system of marketing that collects information on consumers such as name, purchasing profile, demographics, and credit rating and uses it to build a long-term relationship with a customer.        
    day-parts Groups of hours into which the radio industry divides up the time it sells, such as A.M. drive time, P.M. drive time, and late night.        
    day-parts Groups of hours into which the radio industry divides up the time it sells, such as A.M. drive time, P.M. drive time, and late night.        
    Demographics Measurable aspects of a population.        
    Demographics Measurable aspects of a population.        
    demonstration framework An execution that shows the product in use to illustrate its performance and effectiveness.        
    demonstration framework An execution that shows the product in use to illustrate its performance and effectiveness.        
    deprivation research Technique that indicates how loyal consumers are to a brand by taking it away from them.        
    deprivation research Technique that indicates how loyal consumers are to a brand by taking it away from them.        
    Designated Market Areas (DMAs) Markets in the United States that are within range of a particular broadcast television station. A DMA consists of all counties whose largest viewing share is given to stations of that same market area.        
    Designated Market Areas (DMAs) Markets in the United States that are within range of a particular broadcast television station. A DMA consists of all counties whose largest viewing share is given to stations of that same market area.        
    Diffusion of innovations The process by which an idea spreads through a population.        
    Diffusion of innovations The process by which an idea spreads through a population.        
    Digital billboards An electronically enabled outdoor advertising medium that can change messages instantly and may be interactive, for example, letting passersby download a song or kick a virtual football.        
    Digital billboards An electronically enabled outdoor advertising medium that can change messages instantly and may be interactive, for example, letting passersby download a song or kick a virtual football.        
    direct channel A channel of distribution consisting of a producer and the customer.        
    direct channel A channel of distribution consisting of a producer and the customer.        
    Direct mail Advertising sent directly to people’s homes through brochures, letters, and catalogs.        
    Direct mail Advertising sent directly to people’s homes through brochures, letters, and catalogs.        
    Direct marketing Sales communications delivered directly to individual customers through e-mail, direct mail, and telemarketing.        
    Direct marketing Sales communications delivered directly to individual customers through e-mail, direct mail, and telemarketing.        
    direct-response TV (DRTV) TV advertising in which sales are directly linked to on-air programming, as in shopping channels or “call now” ads.        
    direct-response TV (DRTV) TV advertising in which sales are directly linked to on-air programming, as in shopping channels or “call now” ads.        
    Discount promotions A tool in the promotional mix that encourages a trade partner to stock an item by offering a reduced cost or helping to defray the partner’s advertising expenses.        
    Discount promotions A tool in the promotional mix that encourages a trade partner to stock an item by offering a reduced cost or helping to defray the partner’s advertising expenses.        
    dog whistle advertising Advertising that works like an inside joke, targeting a particular group with messages only that group can hear and appreciate.        
    dog whistle advertising Advertising that works like an inside joke, targeting a particular group with messages only that group can hear and appreciate.        
    Early adopters About 13 percent of the population, often influential people, who build buzz around a new idea or product.        
    Early adopters About 13 percent of the population, often influential people, who build buzz around a new idea or product.        
    early majority About 34 percent of the population, who adopt a new idea or product, but only once it has become known.        
    early majority About 34 percent of the population, who adopt a new idea or product, but only once it has become known.        
    economics of information A perspective that shows how consumers benefit from viewing advertising.        
    economics of information A perspective that shows how consumers benefit from viewing advertising.        
    elaboration likelihood model The theory that under conditions of high involvement, the consumer will process the content of the message, form an attitude about it, and make a purchase decision, whereas under low involvement, the consumer will respond to the style of the message rather than its substance.        
    elaboration likelihood model The theory that under conditions of high involvement, the consumer will process the content of the message, form an attitude about it, and make a purchase decision, whereas under low involvement, the consumer will respond to the style of the message rather than its substance.        
    elaborative rehearsal The process of actively thinking about the meaning of a chunk of information to be stored in long-term memory and relating it to other information already in memory.        
    elaborative rehearsal The process of actively thinking about the meaning of a chunk of information to be stored in long-term memory and relating it to other information already in memory.        
    estimate Once the agency collects the bids, it will recommend the partner to the client. The formal acceptance of costs is the estimate. It is generated from the producer or accounting department.        
    estimate Once the agency collects the bids, it will recommend the partner to the client. The formal acceptance of costs is the estimate. It is generated from the producer or accounting department.        
    ethnographic study A data gathering method in which a researcher visits a person’s home or business and directly observes how the customer uses a product in a realistic environment.        
    ethnographic study A data gathering method in which a researcher visits a person’s home or business and directly observes how the customer uses a product in a realistic environment.        
    executional framework The definition of how an ad is structured, such as lifestyle, scientific, or slice-of-life.        
    executional framework The definition of how an ad is structured, such as lifestyle, scientific, or slice-of-life.        
    Eye-tracking technology A physiological measure that tracks where a person’s eyes move and what their pupils do as they look at a particular feature, indicating how engaged a person is or how they react to what they are seeing.        
    Eye-tracking technology A physiological measure that tracks where a person’s eyes move and what their pupils do as they look at a particular feature, indicating how engaged a person is or how they react to what they are seeing.        
    Face-to-face interviews Data gathering technique in which a researcher speaks directly with a respondent, asking questions from a predetermined script or letting the respondent say what he or she wants.        
    Face-to-face interviews Data gathering technique in which a researcher speaks directly with a respondent, asking questions from a predetermined script or letting the respondent say what he or she wants.        
    fear appeal A psychological basis that motivates the viewer toward the advertiser’s goals by emphasizing negative consequences that can result unless a consumer takes the recommended action.        
    fear appeal A psychological basis that motivates the viewer toward the advertiser’s goals by emphasizing negative consequences that can result unless a consumer takes the recommended action.        
    fear appeal A psychological basis that motivates the viewer toward the advertiser’s goals by emphasizing negative consequences that can result unless a consumer takes the recommended action.        
    fear appeal A psychological basis that motivates the viewer toward the advertiser’s goals by emphasizing negative consequences that can result unless a consumer takes the recommended action.        
    Federal Communications Commission (FCC) U.S. government agency, established by the Communications Act of 1934, that regulates interstate and international communications by radio, television, wire, satellite, and cable.        
    Federal Communications Commission (FCC) U.S. government agency, established by the Communications Act of 1934, that regulates interstate and international communications by radio, television, wire, satellite, and cable.        
    Federal Trade Commission (FTC) U.S. government agency established in 1914 to promote “consumer protection” and to monitor “anticompetitive” business practices.        
    Federal Trade Commission (FTC) U.S. government agency established in 1914 to promote “consumer protection” and to monitor “anticompetitive” business practices.        
    FHRHP: first half, right hand page Industry term for the ideal ad position in the magazine or newspaper.        
    FHRHP: first half, right hand page Industry term for the ideal ad position in the magazine or newspaper.        
    Film/video companies Ancillary companies that support ad agencies by producing film and video for TV and the Web.        
    Film/video companies Ancillary companies that support ad agencies by producing film and video for TV and the Web.        
    focus group A small group of consumers, led by a trained facilitator, who discuss what they like and dislike about a product.        
    focus group A small group of consumers, led by a trained facilitator, who discuss what they like and dislike about a product.        
    Four Ps Product, place, price, and promotion.        
    Four Ps Product, place, price, and promotion.        
    frame-by-frame testing Technique of showing consumers a deck of photographic images—created by grabbing key frames from the commercial—that represent the visual content of the ad and having them sort by negative to positive feelings and how much it made them think about the brand.        
    frame-by-frame testing Technique of showing consumers a deck of photographic images—created by grabbing key frames from the commercial—that represent the visual content of the ad and having them sort by negative to positive feelings and how much it made them think about the brand.        
    Framing A key decision creatives make on a photo shoot; framing may be close-up, long shot, frontal, oblique, etc.        
    Framing A key decision creatives make on a photo shoot; framing may be close-up, long shot, frontal, oblique, etc.        
    frequency The average number of times that target consumers are exposed to the media plan.        
    frequency The average number of times that target consumers are exposed to the media plan.        
    Full-service agencies Agencies that provide clients with all the services they need, including planning, creating, producing, and placing the ads; research and evaluation; PR, design, and event planning.        
    Full-service agencies Agencies that provide clients with all the services they need, including planning, creating, producing, and placing the ads; research and evaluation; PR, design, and event planning.        
    Galvanic skin response (GSR) A physiological measure based on the fact that skin’s ability to conduct electricity changes in response to an emotional stimulus like fright, anxiety, or stress.        
    Galvanic skin response (GSR) A physiological measure based on the fact that skin’s ability to conduct electricity changes in response to an emotional stimulus like fright, anxiety, or stress.        
    Geography Defines key aspects of climate, culture, and customer density.        
    Geography Defines key aspects of climate, culture, and customer density.        
    Government and social organizations Local, state, and federal governments and their specialized offices like tourism boards, and social organizations from national groups like the United Way to local hiking clubs.        
    Government and social organizations Local, state, and federal governments and their specialized offices like tourism boards, and social organizations from national groups like the United Way to local hiking clubs.        
    Granular audience profiling Research method that includes all aspects of demographics as well as psychographic information coupled with media habits across all media channels, with the goal of carving out segments within your audience universe and developing target-specific messaging in the media that each target uses.        
    Granular audience profiling Research method that includes all aspects of demographics as well as psychographic information coupled with media habits across all media channels, with the goal of carving out segments within your audience universe and developing target-specific messaging in the media that each target uses.        
    Green marketing Advertising and marketing that emphasizes how products and services are environmentally responsible.        
    Green marketing Advertising and marketing that emphasizes how products and services are environmentally responsible.        
    greenwashing Advertising and marketing that misleads consumers about a product’s environmental benefits.        
    greenwashing Advertising and marketing that misleads consumers about a product’s environmental benefits.        
    gross rating points (GRPs) A calculation made by multiplying reach times frequency.        
    gross rating points (GRPs) A calculation made by multiplying reach times frequency.        
    guerrilla marketing A tool in the promotional mix in which public relations professionals stage an event to “ambush” consumers with messages in places they’re not expecting to encounter them.        
    guerrilla marketing A tool in the promotional mix in which public relations professionals stage an event to “ambush” consumers with messages in places they’re not expecting to encounter them.        
    Guerrilla marketing A tool in the promotional mix in which public relations professionals stage an event to “ambush” consumers with messages in places they’re not expecting to encounter them.        
    Guerrilla marketing A tool in the promotional mix in which public relations professionals stage an event to “ambush” consumers with messages in places they’re not expecting to encounter them.        
    Heuristics Shortcuts or mental “rules of thumb” that people use in making a decision.        
    Heuristics Shortcuts or mental “rules of thumb” that people use in making a decision.        
    hot medium A medium that requires an actively involved reader who processes the information and is able to pause and reflect on what she has read before moving on.        
    hot medium A medium that requires an actively involved reader who processes the information and is able to pause and reflect on what she has read before moving on.        
    humor appeal A psychological basis that motivates the viewer toward the advertiser’s goals with a funny message that makes viewers laugh and feel good.        
    humor appeal A psychological basis that motivates the viewer toward the advertiser’s goals with a funny message that makes viewers laugh and feel good.        
    hyperreality The process of making real what is initially simulation or “hype.”        
    hyperreality The process of making real what is initially simulation or “hype.”        
    icon An icon in the marketing or advertising context refers to a well-known, enduring symbol of an underlying quality.        
    icon An icon in the marketing or advertising context refers to a well-known, enduring symbol of an underlying quality.        
    idea generation Preconcept development phase of the creative process; it involves observing purchase behavior, evaluating brand images and profiling customers to identify unmet needs, changing attitudes, and demographic trends.        
    idea generation Preconcept development phase of the creative process; it involves observing purchase behavior, evaluating brand images and profiling customers to identify unmet needs, changing attitudes, and demographic trends.        
    image advertising Campaigns aimed at enhancing a corporation’s image and promoting the company’s public identity rather than selling a specific product.        
    image advertising Campaigns aimed at enhancing a corporation’s image and promoting the company’s public identity rather than selling a specific product.        
    Impression Share A metric used by Web site hosts to represent the percentage of times an ad was actually shown in relation to the total number of chances it could have been shown, based on its keyword and campaign settings.        
    Impression Share A metric used by Web site hosts to represent the percentage of times an ad was actually shown in relation to the total number of chances it could have been shown, based on its keyword and campaign settings.        
    impressions The number of people who will be exposed to a message that appears in one or more media vehicles.        
    impressions The number of people who will be exposed to a message that appears in one or more media vehicles.        
    impressions The number of people who will be exposed to a message that appears in one or more media vehicles.        
    impressions The number of people who will be exposed to a message that appears in one or more media vehicles.        
    in-house agencies Agencies set up within the corporation, typically run by an advertising director who chooses which services to buy and which to perform internally.        
    in-house agencies Agencies set up within the corporation, typically run by an advertising director who chooses which services to buy and which to perform internally.        
    in-kind media Placement at no media cost on the properties an advertiser owns, such as msnbc.com ad placement on NBC TV stations and Microsoft Web sites.        
    in-kind media Placement at no media cost on the properties an advertiser owns, such as msnbc.com ad placement on NBC TV stations and Microsoft Web sites.        
    Incentive programs A tool in the promotional mix that gives salespeople or channel partners free trips, cash bonuses, or rewards when they sell the manufacturer’s product.        
    Incentive programs A tool in the promotional mix that gives salespeople or channel partners free trips, cash bonuses, or rewards when they sell the manufacturer’s product.        
    incidental learning Casual, unintentional acquisition of knowledge.        
    incidental learning Casual, unintentional acquisition of knowledge.        
    individuality A values appeal that emphasizes self-expression, most closely associated with the Fun-Seeker audience segment.        
    individuality A values appeal that emphasizes self-expression, most closely associated with the Fun-Seeker audience segment.        
    Industrial Revolution A period in the early nineteenth century when the economic system based on manual labor gave way to the modern system of producing goods in factories.        
    Industrial Revolution A period in the early nineteenth century when the economic system based on manual labor gave way to the modern system of producing goods in factories.        
    industry averages A technique for evaluating ad-to-sales ratios based on the ratios seen in a group of companies in a given industry.        
    industry averages A technique for evaluating ad-to-sales ratios based on the ratios seen in a group of companies in a given industry.        
    Innovators About 2.5 percent of the population, who are the first to adopt a new idea or product.        
    Innovators About 2.5 percent of the population, who are the first to adopt a new idea or product.        
    Integrated marketing communications A strategy that unites all forms of marketing programs aimed at a target audience, including magazine ads, TV commercials, coupons, an opportunity to win a sweepstakes, a display at the store, and a visit from a company sales rep.        
    Integrated marketing communications A strategy that unites all forms of marketing programs aimed at a target audience, including magazine ads, TV commercials, coupons, an opportunity to win a sweepstakes, a display at the store, and a visit from a company sales rep.        
    integrated marketing communications perspective A marketing strategy that blends many diverse elements so that the client’s message touches the customer in the same way regardless of where this interaction occurs.        
    integrated marketing communications perspective A marketing strategy that blends many diverse elements so that the client’s message touches the customer in the same way regardless of where this interaction occurs.        
    interference Mental process in which earlier information stored in memory is displaced as we learn additional information.        
    interference Mental process in which earlier information stored in memory is displaced as we learn additional information.        
    interpretant In semiotics, the meaning derived about the object.        
    interpretant In semiotics, the meaning derived about the object.        
    involvement The amount of thought and effort a consumer puts into a buying decision.        
    involvement The amount of thought and effort a consumer puts into a buying decision.        
    Laggards About 16 percent of the population, who are the last to adopt a new idea or product; they may never adopt it.        
    Laggards About 16 percent of the population, who are the last to adopt a new idea or product; they may never adopt it.        
    late majority About 34 percent of the population, who are skeptical of new products and take longer to adopt them than the early majority.        
    late majority About 34 percent of the population, who are skeptical of new products and take longer to adopt them than the early majority.        
    lifestyle framework An execution that shows how the product fits into the consumer’s life.        
    lifestyle framework An execution that shows how the product fits into the consumer’s life.        
    lifestyle or design position Appealing to the customer who values the social or aesthetic statement a brand makes—and often what others will think about him or her after the purchase.        
    lifestyle or design position Appealing to the customer who values the social or aesthetic statement a brand makes—and often what others will think about him or her after the purchase.        
    likeability The extent to which the audience has positive feelings about an ad, judged by the ad’s ingenuity, meaning, energy, warmth, and nonirritating character.        
    likeability The extent to which the audience has positive feelings about an ad, judged by the ad’s ingenuity, meaning, energy, warmth, and nonirritating character.        
    logical appeal A psychological basis that motivates the viewer toward the advertiser’s goals with a rational, informative message describing the product’s features, advantages, and price.        
    logical appeal A psychological basis that motivates the viewer toward the advertiser’s goals with a rational, informative message describing the product’s features, advantages, and price.        
    LOHAS Consumers who worry about the environment and spend money to advance what they see as their personal development and potential; also called cultural creatives.        
    LOHAS Consumers who worry about the environment and spend money to advance what they see as their personal development and potential; also called cultural creatives.        
    Loyalty programs A tool in the promotional mix that rewards consumers for their frequent, continuing purchase of a product; examples are airline frequent flyer programs and restaurant punch cards.        
    Loyalty programs A tool in the promotional mix that rewards consumers for their frequent, continuing purchase of a product; examples are airline frequent flyer programs and restaurant punch cards.        
    market coverage The extent to which a given media vehicle reaches the target audience.        
    market coverage The extent to which a given media vehicle reaches the target audience.        
    market maven A person who likes to transmit marketplace information of all types; a shopaholic.        
    market maven A person who likes to transmit marketplace information of all types; a shopaholic.        
    Market researchers Employees who learn all they can about the target customer by using focus groups and interviews, test reactions to campaigns, and secondary information.        
    Market researchers Employees who learn all they can about the target customer by using focus groups and interviews, test reactions to campaigns, and secondary information.        
    Marketing The processes involved in creating, communicating, delivering, and exchanging offerings that have value.        
    Marketing The processes involved in creating, communicating, delivering, and exchanging offerings that have value.        
    Marketing objectives Statements of what the marketing function must do so that the company can achieve its overall business objectives (such as growth, expansion of its market share, or increasing profits).        
    Marketing objectives Statements of what the marketing function must do so that the company can achieve its overall business objectives (such as growth, expansion of its market share, or increasing profits).        
    marketing strategy The activities a company must take to achieve its marketing objectives, including the Four Ps (product definition, pricing strategies, promotion strategy, place [distribution] strategies).        
    marketing strategy The activities a company must take to achieve its marketing objectives, including the Four Ps (product definition, pricing strategies, promotion strategy, place [distribution] strategies).        
    match-up hypothesis The principle that, in order for a celebrity to be an effective spokesperson, the celebrity’s image and that of the product he or she endorses should be similar.        
    match-up hypothesis The principle that, in order for a celebrity to be an effective spokesperson, the celebrity’s image and that of the product he or she endorses should be similar.        
    media event A public relations tool in the form of a preannouncement to the media to garner attention for a product introduction, new channel partner, or major change in strategy.        
    media event A public relations tool in the form of a preannouncement to the media to garner attention for a product introduction, new channel partner, or major change in strategy.        
    media impressions An estimate of the number of people who see an ad in a magazine, a newspaper, or on a talk show or who hear about it in a radio interview.        
    media impressions An estimate of the number of people who see an ad in a magazine, a newspaper, or on a talk show or who hear about it in a radio interview.        
    Media objectives Plans that define the who, where, and when of the target audience in the context of an overall marketing plan and budget.        
    Media objectives Plans that define the who, where, and when of the target audience in the context of an overall marketing plan and budget.        
    media planners Employees who gather information about consumers’ viewing or reading habits and combine it with knowledge of media vehicles to find the best placement for the advertising.        
    media planners Employees who gather information about consumers’ viewing or reading habits and combine it with knowledge of media vehicles to find the best placement for the advertising.        
    Media planning The process of selecting which media vehicle to use, when, and where.        
    Media planning The process of choosing one or more media vehicles to reach the target audience and achieve the message objectives.        
    Media planning The process of selecting which media vehicle to use, when, and where.        
    Media planning The process of choosing one or more media vehicles to reach the target audience and achieve the message objectives.        
    media schedule The planner’s best estimate of which media will be most effective to attain the advertising objective(s) and which specific media vehicles will do the most effective job.        
    media schedule The planner’s best estimate of which media will be most effective to attain the advertising objective(s) and which specific media vehicles will do the most effective job.        
    Media strategy Plan that matches the potential customers of a product with users of specific media.        
    Media strategy Plan that matches the potential customers of a product with users of specific media.        
    media-agnostic Willingness to use any medium or discipline to solve a client’s problem as long as the solution delivers the right message at the right time to the right audience with the right medium.        
    media-agnostic Willingness to use any medium or discipline to solve a client’s problem as long as the solution delivers the right message at the right time to the right audience with the right medium.        
    meme A unit of cultural information that is passed from one person to another, especially by imitation.        
    meme A unit of cultural information that is passed from one person to another, especially by imitation.        
    Merchandising allowances A tool in the promotional mix in which a manufacturer reimburses its channel partners for support of a product, such as reimbursing retailers for a special off-shelf or end-of-aisle display.        
    Merchandising allowances A tool in the promotional mix in which a manufacturer reimburses its channel partners for support of a product, such as reimbursing retailers for a special off-shelf or end-of-aisle display.        
    metrics Quantifiable measures that gauge the direct impact of a marketing communication.        
    metrics Quantifiable measures that gauge the direct impact of a marketing communication.        
    misogyny Hatred or disdain toward women.        
    misogyny Hatred or disdain toward women.        
    mix or final mix In a TV commercial, the blend of the married elements of dialogue or voice-over (VO), sound design and music so that the desired story is achieved.        
    mix or final mix In a TV commercial, the blend of the married elements of dialogue or voice-over (VO), sound design and music so that the desired story is achieved.        
    Mobile commerce New media technology that enables advertisers to reach consumers through their cell phones and wireless PDAs.        
    Mobile commerce New media technology that enables advertisers to reach consumers through their cell phones and wireless PDAs.        
    mobile couponing New media technology that enables cell phone users to sign up to receive coupons via cell phone; to cash in the coupons, consumers show their cell phone screens displaying the coupon to a store cashier.        
    mobile couponing New media technology that enables cell phone users to sign up to receive coupons via cell phone; to cash in the coupons, consumers show their cell phone screens displaying the coupon to a store cashier.        
    Modeling The process of imitating the behavior of others.        
    Modeling The process of imitating the behavior of others.        
    Motivation The processes that lead people to behave as they do.        
    Motivation The processes that lead people to behave as they do.        
    multiattribute attitude models Theory that consumers form attitudes about a product based on attributes of that product, their beliefs about those attributes, and the relative importance they assign to those attributes.        
    multiattribute attitude models Theory that consumers form attitudes about a product based on attributes of that product, their beliefs about those attributes, and the relative importance they assign to those attributes.        
    Multicultural advertising Advertising designed to attract racial and ethnic segments that have traditionally been considered minorities.        
    Multicultural advertising Advertising designed to attract racial and ethnic segments that have traditionally been considered minorities.        
    multiplatform advertising Technique that exposes consumers to the same ad message on multiple platforms.        
    multiplatform advertising Technique that exposes consumers to the same ad message on multiple platforms.        
    multitasking The activity of processing information from more than one medium at a time, such as cell phones, TV, and instant messages.        
    multitasking The activity of processing information from more than one medium at a time, such as cell phones, TV, and instant messages.        
    myth A story with symbolic elements that represents a culture’s ideals.        
    myth A story with symbolic elements that represents a culture’s ideals.        
    narrative A message related in the form of a story.        
    narrative A message related in the form of a story.        
    National Advertising Review Board A body of the National Advertising Review Council (NARC), a strategic alliance among four major trade organizations, that resolves disputes over advertising investigated by NAD or CARU.        
    National Advertising Review Board A body of the National Advertising Review Council (NARC), a strategic alliance among four major trade organizations, that resolves disputes over advertising investigated by NAD or CARU.        
    national character A set of behavior and personality characteristics distinctive to a certain country.        
    national character A set of behavior and personality characteristics distinctive to a certain country.        
    need The difference between a consumer’s actual state and some ideal or desired state.        
    need The difference between a consumer’s actual state and some ideal or desired state.        
    Neuromarketing A physiological measure that studies the brain’s response to ads and brands using brain imaging techniques such as fMRI.        
    Neuromarketing A physiological measure that studies the brain’s response to ads and brands using brain imaging techniques such as fMRI.        
    New media A spectrum of nontraditional methods to communicate with customers, consisting of new technologies (e.g., the Internet, cell phones) and new promotional techniques that depart from the traditional “advertisers speak, consumers listen” model.        
    New media A spectrum of nontraditional methods to communicate with customers, consisting of new technologies (e.g., the Internet, cell phones) and new promotional techniques that depart from the traditional “advertisers speak, consumers listen” model.        
    noble purpose Expression of the brand’s “true north,” its reason for being; a single-minded, concise statement, written to excite the imagination.        
    noble purpose Expression of the brand’s “true north,” its reason for being; a single-minded, concise statement, written to excite the imagination.        
    North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) A numerical coding of industries the United States, Canada, and Mexico developed. The NAICS reports the number of firms, the total dollar amount of sales, the number of employees, and the growth rate for industries, all broken down by geographic region.        
    North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) A numerical coding of industries the United States, Canada, and Mexico developed. The NAICS reports the number of firms, the total dollar amount of sales, the number of employees, and the growth rate for industries, all broken down by geographic region.        
    not-for-profit organizations A corporation that exists primarily for educational or charitable purposes, whose shareholders or trustees do not benefit financially.        
    not-for-profit organizations A corporation that exists primarily for educational or charitable purposes, whose shareholders or trustees do not benefit financially.        
    objective variables Reasons to buy a product, such as price, performance, size, and power.        
    objective variables Reasons to buy a product, such as price, performance, size, and power.        
    objective-task method The most common technique of bottom-up budgeting, in which a company sets the objective or task they want the promotion to achieve, then estimates the budget needed to achieve it; top management reviews and approves the budget recommendation.        
    objective-task method The most common technique of bottom-up budgeting, in which a company sets the objective or task they want the promotion to achieve, then estimates the budget needed to achieve it; top management reviews and approves the budget recommendation.        
    online advertising Pop-ups, pop-unders, banners, and text ads associated with Web pages.        
    online advertising Pop-ups, pop-unders, banners, and text ads associated with Web pages.        
    opinion leader A person who is frequently able to influence others’ attitudes or behaviors.        
    opinion leader A person who is frequently able to influence others’ attitudes or behaviors.        
    opinion seekers A person who is involved in a product category and actively searches for information.        
    opinion seekers A person who is involved in a product category and actively searches for information.        
    organic users A user who types in a given URL, or who has that URL bookmarked as the form of entry into a given site, rather than clicking through a link (from a search page or ad).        
    organic users A user who types in a given URL, or who has that URL bookmarked as the form of entry into a given site, rather than clicking through a link (from a search page or ad).        
    outdoor advertising Also known as out-of-home advertising, outdoor advertising includes billboards on roadsides and posters on transit (buses, subways, rail, airports, trucks, and taxis), at gas pumps, and on park benches.        
    outdoor advertising Also known as out-of-home advertising, outdoor advertising includes billboards on roadsides and posters on transit (buses, subways, rail, airports, trucks, and taxis), at gas pumps, and on park benches.        
    Packaging An augmented product that provides value in terms of storing a product and allowing it to be transported safely and that makes a product visually distinctive to customers.        
    Packaging An augmented product that provides value in terms of storing a product and allowing it to be transported safely and that makes a product visually distinctive to customers.        
    paid search The results listed when a consumer enters a search term in the browser and clicks on search results that appear at the top or side of the page with indication of sponsored links.        
    paid search The results listed when a consumer enters a search term in the browser and clicks on search results that appear at the top or side of the page with indication of sponsored links.        
    pass-along impressions The number of times a magazine or other piece of media is passed from one person to another.        
    pass-along impressions The number of times a magazine or other piece of media is passed from one person to another.        
    pass-along readership Magazine ad readers in addition to the original purchaser.        
    pass-along readership Magazine ad readers in addition to the original purchaser.        
    perceived risk The potential physical, financial, or social drawbacks that a consumer can imagine in making the wrong buying decision.        
    perceived risk The potential physical, financial, or social drawbacks that a consumer can imagine in making the wrong buying decision.        
    percentage-of-sales Budgeting method that divides the ratio of the firm’s past annual promotional budget by past sales to arrive at the percentage of sales; this is applied to expected sales in the coming year to arrive at the ad budget for that year.        
    percentage-of-sales Budgeting method that divides the ratio of the firm’s past annual promotional budget by past sales to arrive at the percentage of sales; this is applied to expected sales in the coming year to arrive at the ad budget for that year.        
    perception process The sensory stimuli (sights, sounds, smells, tastes, textures) that enter through our sensory receptors (eyes, ears, nose, mouth, and skin).        
    perception process The sensory stimuli (sights, sounds, smells, tastes, textures) that enter through our sensory receptors (eyes, ears, nose, mouth, and skin).        
    performance fees A system of payment in which the agency’s fee depends on the success of the campaign.        
    performance fees A system of payment in which the agency’s fee depends on the success of the campaign.        
    permission marketing A strategy in which consumers (receivers) indicate (for example, by searching for a certain topic on the Internet) that they are interested in receiving a communication before the sender transmits the message.        
    permission marketing A strategy in which consumers (receivers) indicate (for example, by searching for a certain topic on the Internet) that they are interested in receiving a communication before the sender transmits the message.        
    Personal selling Sales technique involving direct interaction between a company representative and the customer.        
    Personal selling Sales technique involving direct interaction between a company representative and the customer.        
    Persuasion Advertising aimed at getting consumers to switch to a new brand.        
    Persuasion Advertising aimed at getting consumers to switch to a new brand.        
    physical and social environment The surroundings where a message is delivered, including surroundings and decor, and whether or not others are present.        
    physical and social environment The surroundings where a message is delivered, including surroundings and decor, and whether or not others are present.        
    Place Where a product is offered for sale, e.g., in a local grocery store, a “big box” store, or a vending machine. Marketing strives to make an offering available at a time and location desirable to the customer.        
    Place Where a product is offered for sale, e.g., in a local grocery store, a “big box” store, or a vending machine. Marketing strives to make an offering available at a time and location desirable to the customer.        
    Place (distribution) strategies One of the Four Ps: description of how the product will be sold—directly to consumers or through retailers or wholesalers.        
    Place (distribution) strategies One of the Four Ps: description of how the product will be sold—directly to consumers or through retailers or wholesalers.        
    Place-based media Media—usually TV or video—that transmit messages to “captive audiences” in public places, such as the waiting areas in doctors’ offices, hospitals, and airports.        
    Place-based media Media—usually TV or video—that transmit messages to “captive audiences” in public places, such as the waiting areas in doctors’ offices, hospitals, and airports.        
    Point-of-purchase (POP) displays Displays next to cash registers or elsewhere in retail environments—we often find them at the point where customers are ready to buy.        
    Point-of-purchase (POP) displays Displays next to cash registers or elsewhere in retail environments—we often find them at the point where customers are ready to buy.        
    point-of-purchase advertising Also called marketing-at-retail. Can be an elaborate product display or demonstration, a coupon-dispensing machine, or even someone giving out free samples of a new cookie in the grocery aisle.        
    point-of-purchase advertising Also called marketing-at-retail. Can be an elaborate product display or demonstration, a coupon-dispensing machine, or even someone giving out free samples of a new cookie in the grocery aisle.        
    POP (point-of-purchase) advertising Ad messages that shoppers see when they are physically located in a purchasing environment.        
    POP (point-of-purchase) advertising Ad messages that shoppers see when they are physically located in a purchasing environment.        
    pop-under ads Ad that opens a new browser window under the active window, allowing the user to continue browsing at the intended site.        
    pop-under ads Ad that opens a new browser window under the active window, allowing the user to continue browsing at the intended site.        
    Positioning Defining the relationship between your product and the customer/audience, with the purpose of distinguishing your product from the competition.        
    Positioning Defining the relationship between your product and the customer/audience, with the purpose of distinguishing your product from the competition.        
    Postpurchase satisfaction or dissatisfaction The process in which consumers use a new product and are either satisfied with the purchase or not.        
    Postpurchase satisfaction or dissatisfaction The process in which consumers use a new product and are either satisfied with the purchase or not.        
    Posttesting In copy research, consumer testing that takes place after the campaign, aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of the copy in communicating its message.        
    Posttesting In copy research, consumer testing that takes place after the campaign, aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of the copy in communicating its message.        
    premium A tool in the promotional mix that gives consumers a free item with purchase of another item.        
    premium A tool in the promotional mix that gives consumers a free item with purchase of another item.        
    Price The amount the consumer pays to acquire a product.        
    Price The amount the consumer pays to acquire a product.        
    Primary data New information gathered directly from respondents the company talks to, surveys, or researches.        
    Primary data New information gathered directly from respondents the company talks to, surveys, or researches.        
    Print advertising Placement of ads in newspapers, magazines, the Yellow Pages, and classified columns.        
    Print advertising Placement of ads in newspapers, magazines, the Yellow Pages, and classified columns.        
    Printers Ancillary companies that support ad agencies by producing printed material for a variety of media channels.        
    Printers Ancillary companies that support ad agencies by producing printed material for a variety of media channels.        
    PRIZM Classifies all U.S. neighborhoods into sixty-two distinct clusters based upon very detailed data about the products and media that people who live in different neighborhoods consume relative to the national average.        
    PRIZM Classifies all U.S. neighborhoods into sixty-two distinct clusters based upon very detailed data about the products and media that people who live in different neighborhoods consume relative to the national average.        
    Product A good, service, or idea that can be marketed.        
    Product A good, service, or idea that can be marketed.        
    product life cycle method Stage-based budgeting technique that allocates more money during the introduction stage of a new product than in later stages when the product is established.        
    product life cycle method Stage-based budgeting technique that allocates more money during the introduction stage of a new product than in later stages when the product is established.        
    Product placement New media technique in which a show’s story line incorporates a branded product, typically in TV shows and movies.        
    Product placement New media technique in which a show’s story line incorporates a branded product, typically in TV shows and movies.        
    Production staff Employees who select photos, choose the print size and type, and oversee the actual printing, filming or audio recording of the campaign.        
    Production staff Employees who select photos, choose the print size and type, and oversee the actual printing, filming or audio recording of the campaign.        
    promotion All the activities that inform and encourage consumers to buy a given product.        
    promotion All the activities that inform and encourage consumers to buy a given product.        
    promotional mix Set of tools that advertisers use to communicate the important elements of the promotional value proposition.        
    promotional mix Set of tools that advertisers use to communicate the important elements of the promotional value proposition.        
    Promotional products A tool in the promotional mix also known as swag: free merchandise such as pens, coffee mugs, and polo shirts emblazoned with a company’s logo, intended to keep the brand top of mind.        
    Promotional products A tool in the promotional mix also known as swag: free merchandise such as pens, coffee mugs, and polo shirts emblazoned with a company’s logo, intended to keep the brand top of mind.        
    promotional pull strategy Promotional effort aimed at the final customer.        
    promotional pull strategy Promotional effort aimed at the final customer.        
    Psychographics Dimensions that segment consumers in terms of personality, values, attitudes, and opinions. While demographics can divide people along specific (often quantitative) dimensions, psychographics captures the reasoning and emotion behind people’s decisions.        
    Psychographics Dimensions that segment consumers in terms of personality, values, attitudes, and opinions. While demographics can divide people along specific (often quantitative) dimensions, psychographics captures the reasoning and emotion behind people’s decisions.        
    public relations (PR) Communication intended to earn public understanding and acceptance of the firm by stressing the practices, policies, and procedures of an individual or the organization. This can be accomplished by identifying donations to charitable organizations, sponsorship of esteemed causes or events, contributions to individual, community, or societal well-being, and so on.        
    public relations (PR) Communication intended to earn public understanding and acceptance of the firm by stressing the practices, policies, and procedures of an individual or the organization. This can be accomplished by identifying donations to charitable organizations, sponsorship of esteemed causes or events, contributions to individual, community, or societal well-being, and so on.        
    public service announcements (PSAs) Not-for-profit advertising messages designed to change the society’s culture as they focus awareness on specific issues that address the public as a whole.        
    public service announcements (PSAs) Not-for-profit advertising messages designed to change the society’s culture as they focus awareness on specific issues that address the public as a whole.        
    qualitative Data or research results obtained by eliciting stories, anecdotes, and descriptive words that indicate the emotions, attitudes, and values associated with a product.        
    qualitative Data or research results obtained by eliciting stories, anecdotes, and descriptive words that indicate the emotions, attitudes, and values associated with a product.        
    Radio The first broadcast medium, bringing free advertising to American homes from the 1920s onward, which transmits sound through airwaves. Radio can be local or network.        
    Radio The first broadcast medium, bringing free advertising to American homes from the 1920s onward, which transmits sound through airwaves. Radio can be local or network.        
    Reach The percentage of the target audience that is exposed to any of the media vehicles in the media plan during a specified time period.        
    Reach The percentage of the target audience that is exposed to any of the media vehicles in the media plan during a specified time period.        
    rebate A tool in the promotional mix that refunds part of the purchase price after the consumer fills out and returns a form along with a sales receipt.        
    rebate A tool in the promotional mix that refunds part of the purchase price after the consumer fills out and returns a form along with a sales receipt.        
    recognition Viewers recognize the brand or message when they see or hear it again.        
    recognition Viewers recognize the brand or message when they see or hear it again.        
    Recognition Viewers recognize the brand or message when they see or hear it again.        
    Recognition Viewers recognize the brand or message when they see or hear it again.        
    reference group An actual or imaginary individual or group conceived of as having significant relevance upon an individual’s evaluations, aspirations, or behavior.        
    reference group An actual or imaginary individual or group conceived of as having significant relevance upon an individual’s evaluations, aspirations, or behavior.        
    Refutational arguments Advertising that raises a negative issue and then refutes it.        
    Refutational arguments Advertising that raises a negative issue and then refutes it.        
    Reminder A message aimed at helping consumers keep the product in mind and remember to buy it again.        
    Reminder A message aimed at helping consumers keep the product in mind and remember to buy it again.        
    request for proposal (RFP) Communication to agencies in which the client lays out basic information about its business and requirements for the job.        
    request for proposal (RFP) Communication to agencies in which the client lays out basic information about its business and requirements for the job.        
    Research companies Ancillary companies that support ad agencies by assessing channel viewership, ad response, consumer attitudes, and trends.        
    Research companies Ancillary companies that support ad agencies by assessing channel viewership, ad response, consumer attitudes, and trends.        
    Resonance The extent to which the images, ideas, concepts, and advertised product attributes connect deeply in the target consumer’s mind and heart.        
    Resonance The extent to which the images, ideas, concepts, and advertised product attributes connect deeply in the target consumer’s mind and heart.        
    retailer The last point in the distribution chain; a merchant who sells to the final customer.        
    retailer The last point in the distribution chain; a merchant who sells to the final customer.        
    Retrieval The process whereby we recover information from long-term memory.        
    Retrieval The process whereby we recover information from long-term memory.        
    Return on investment The amount of profit an investment generates; an approach to budgeting that views advertising as an investment, not a cost.        
    Return on investment The amount of profit an investment generates; an approach to budgeting that views advertising as an investment, not a cost.        
    return on investment (ROI) The relationship between the amount of money spent and the amount of money gained by the company as a result of that expenditure.        
    return on investment (ROI) The relationship between the amount of money spent and the amount of money gained by the company as a result of that expenditure.        
    Rhetorical questions A question asked in order to produce an effect or to make a statement rather than to elicit information.        
    Rhetorical questions A question asked in order to produce an effect or to make a statement rather than to elicit information.        
    ritual A set of multiple symbolic behaviors that occurs in a fixed sequence and is repeated periodically.        
    ritual A set of multiple symbolic behaviors that occurs in a fixed sequence and is repeated periodically.        
    roadblock An ad strategy in which the only ads that appear for a specified time period are those for one company, achieving 100% SOV for those hours.        
    roadblock An ad strategy in which the only ads that appear for a specified time period are those for one company, achieving 100% SOV for those hours.        
    Sales force automation (SFA) The use of computers to track such functions as contact management, sales quotes, sales order information, and reporting.        
    Sales force automation (SFA) The use of computers to track such functions as contact management, sales quotes, sales order information, and reporting.        
    Sales promotion agencies Ancillary companies that support ad agencies by handling sales promotions such as price discounts, sampling, rebates, premiums, trade shows, in-store merchandising, and point-of-purchase displays.        
    Sales promotion agencies Ancillary companies that support ad agencies by handling sales promotions such as price discounts, sampling, rebates, premiums, trade shows, in-store merchandising, and point-of-purchase displays.        
    Sales promotions A basic tool in the promotional mix; any activity intended to produce short-term change in behavior, including limited-time incentives for consumers and for trade partners.        
    Sales promotions A basic tool in the promotional mix; any activity intended to produce short-term change in behavior, including limited-time incentives for consumers and for trade partners.        
    Sales promotions A basic tool in the promotional mix; any activity intended to produce short-term change in behavior, including limited-time incentives for consumers and for trade partners.        
    Sales promotions A basic tool in the promotional mix; any activity intended to produce short-term change in behavior, including limited-time incentives for consumers and for trade partners.        
    salience The prominence or level of activation in memory of a brand or product.        
    salience The prominence or level of activation in memory of a brand or product.        
    Sampling A tool in the promotional mix that offers consumers a product for free; samples are often trial size but may be full size.        
    Sampling A tool in the promotional mix that offers consumers a product for free; samples are often trial size but may be full size.        
    scientific framework An execution that uses research and evidence to show the brand’s superiority over other brands.        
    scientific framework An execution that uses research and evidence to show the brand’s superiority over other brands.        
    scorecards A checklist or chart, also known as a dashboard, that allows senior management to monitor the actions the firm is taking and how these actions affect the bottom line.        
    scorecards A checklist or chart, also known as a dashboard, that allows senior management to monitor the actions the firm is taking and how these actions affect the bottom line.        
    search ads New media technology that lets advertisers associate their ad with the keywords that Web users enter into search engines like Google and Yahoo!.        
    search ads New media technology that lets advertisers associate their ad with the keywords that Web users enter into search engines like Google and Yahoo!.        
    secondary data Information that has already been collected for a previous purpose, often by a third party; an example is government census data.        
    secondary data Information that has already been collected for a previous purpose, often by a third party; an example is government census data.        
    Segmentation The process of dividing a larger market into smaller pieces based on one or more meaningful and measurable shared characteristics.        
    Segmentation The process of dividing a larger market into smaller pieces based on one or more meaningful and measurable shared characteristics.        
    Semantic meaning Symbolic associations consumers form with a product or brand.        
    Semantic meaning Symbolic associations consumers form with a product or brand.        
    Semiotics The field of study that looks at the relationship between signs and symbols and their role in assignment of meaning.        
    Semiotics The field of study that looks at the relationship between signs and symbols and their role in assignment of meaning.        
    sensory overload The condition of being exposed to far more information than one can process.        
    sensory overload The condition of being exposed to far more information than one can process.        
    sex appeal A psychological basis that motivates the viewer toward the advertiser’s goals by titillating the viewer with actual or suggested nudity or sexual behavior.        
    sex appeal A psychological basis that motivates the viewer toward the advertiser’s goals by titillating the viewer with actual or suggested nudity or sexual behavior.        
    Share of voice (SOV) The relative fraction of ad inventory a single advertiser uses within a defined market over a specified time period.        
    Share of voice (SOV) The relative fraction of ad inventory a single advertiser uses within a defined market over a specified time period.        
    simile A literary device that compares two objects such that “A is like B.”        
    simile A literary device that compares two objects such that “A is like B.”        
    situation analysis An assessment of where the brand currently is, including the competitive situation, customer situation, and economic and cultural trends.        
    situation analysis An assessment of where the brand currently is, including the competitive situation, customer situation, and economic and cultural trends.        
    slice-of-life framework An execution that presents everyday people in an everyday situation.        
    slice-of-life framework An execution that presents everyday people in an everyday situation.        
    social media New media platforms that combine technology with community to allow users to contribute their own content and to react to what other users post.        
    social media New media platforms that combine technology with community to allow users to contribute their own content and to react to what other users post.        
    social networking Online communities of people who share interests, activities, or relationships, and typically are interested in following the activities of other members.        
    social networking Online communities of people who share interests, activities, or relationships, and typically are interested in following the activities of other members.        
    Social power The capacity to alter the actions of others.        
    Social power The capacity to alter the actions of others.        
    Source attractiveness The perceived social value of the source of a message—not just his or her physical appearance, but also personality, social status, or similarity to the receiver.        
    Source attractiveness The perceived social value of the source of a message—not just his or her physical appearance, but also personality, social status, or similarity to the receiver.        
    Source credibility The extent to which consumers perceive the source of a message as an expert who is objective and trustworthy.        
    Source credibility The extent to which consumers perceive the source of a message as an expert who is objective and trustworthy.        
    source effects The interpretation and impact of a message often is influenced by who delivers it.        
    source effects The interpretation and impact of a message often is influenced by who delivers it.        
    spam Unsolicited e-mail sent to multiple addresses; nine out of ten e-mail messages are spam.        
    spam Unsolicited e-mail sent to multiple addresses; nine out of ten e-mail messages are spam.        
    Spec work Preliminary ideas based on the agency’s best guess as to what might appeal to and work best for a client and presented in a form that is very close to “finished.”        
    Spec work Preliminary ideas based on the agency’s best guess as to what might appeal to and work best for a client and presented in a form that is very close to “finished.”        
    specialized agencies Agencies that focus on one aspect of the creative process, such as media or interactive.        
    specialized agencies Agencies that focus on one aspect of the creative process, such as media or interactive.        
    Specialty print media Booklets, folders, and CD/DVD inserts.        
    Specialty print media Booklets, folders, and CD/DVD inserts.        
    Starch test The product of a research service founded in 1932 by Daniel Starch; a widely used commercial measure of advertising recall for magazines that provides scores on a number of aspects of consumers’ familiarity with an ad.        
    Starch test The product of a research service founded in 1932 by Daniel Starch; a widely used commercial measure of advertising recall for magazines that provides scores on a number of aspects of consumers’ familiarity with an ad.        
    Stickiness The ability of a Web site to hold consumers’ interest.        
    Stickiness The ability of a Web site to hold consumers’ interest.        
    stimulus generalization The process in which the reactions consumers have learned to one object tend to transfer to other, similar objects.        
    stimulus generalization The process in which the reactions consumers have learned to one object tend to transfer to other, similar objects.        
    STP (Segmenting, Targeting, Positioning) Process that 1) segments or subdivides the population to help you think about who are and are not the potential customers for your product and the potential audience of the advertising; 2) targets or picks the segment(s) for the campaign that will be the focus of the advertising; and 3) positions or determines how to think about the relationship between your product and the customer/audience, with the purpose of distinguishing your product from the competition.        
    STP (Segmenting, Targeting, Positioning) Process that 1) segments or subdivides the population to help you think about who are and are not the potential customers for your product and the potential audience of the advertising; 2) targets or picks the segment(s) for the campaign that will be the focus of the advertising; and 3) positions or determines how to think about the relationship between your product and the customer/audience, with the purpose of distinguishing your product from the competition.        
    strategy A detailed plan that specifies overall objectives the client wishes to reach based upon a realistic assessment of its environment and what it is capable of achieving, as well as its general approach to reaching those objectives.        
    strategy A detailed plan that specifies overall objectives the client wishes to reach based upon a realistic assessment of its environment and what it is capable of achieving, as well as its general approach to reaching those objectives.        
    subculture A group of people whose members share common beliefs and common experiences.        
    subculture A group of people whose members share common beliefs and common experiences.        
    Subliminal perception Perception that occurs when the stimulus is below the level of the consumer’s awareness.        
    Subliminal perception Perception that occurs when the stimulus is below the level of the consumer’s awareness.        
    surrogate consumer A person who is hired by others to provide input into their purchase decisions.        
    surrogate consumer A person who is hired by others to provide input into their purchase decisions.        
    Surveys The most common form of quantitative research, consisting of a questionnaire administered by mail or telephone, online, or through face-to-face “intercepts.”        
    Surveys The most common form of quantitative research, consisting of a questionnaire administered by mail or telephone, online, or through face-to-face “intercepts.”        
    swag Items such as mugs, pens, or hats imprinted with a company’s name, logo, or slogan.        
    swag Items such as mugs, pens, or hats imprinted with a company’s name, logo, or slogan.        
    sweeps week Time period during which viewership ratings are collected; networks often pump up their schedules to attract viewers during this time.        
    sweeps week Time period during which viewership ratings are collected; networks often pump up their schedules to attract viewers during this time.        
    sweepstakes A tool in the promotional mix that offers consumers the opportunity to win a prize; winning is based on luck and by law cannot be tied to purchase.        
    sweepstakes A tool in the promotional mix that offers consumers the opportunity to win a prize; winning is based on luck and by law cannot be tied to purchase.        
    SWOT analysis Assessment that organizes internal and external factors affecting the product or business into separate categories (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats) for study.        
    SWOT analysis Assessment that organizes internal and external factors affecting the product or business into separate categories (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats) for study.        
    symbol In semiotics, a sign that relates to a product by either conventional or agreed-on associations.        
    symbol In semiotics, a sign that relates to a product by either conventional or agreed-on associations.        
    syndicated survey A large-scale research instrument that collects information about a wide variety of consumers’ attitudes and actual purchases; companies pay to access the data they find relevant.        
    syndicated survey A large-scale research instrument that collects information about a wide variety of consumers’ attitudes and actual purchases; companies pay to access the data they find relevant.        
    tag cloud A format for displaying survey results in which the size of a word corresponds to its frequency among responses; a frequently chosen response will appear very large on the screen, while a rarely chosen response will appear very small.        
    tag cloud A format for displaying survey results in which the size of a word corresponds to its frequency among responses; a frequently chosen response will appear very large on the screen, while a rarely chosen response will appear very small.        
    Targeting Defining who customers are in order to increase the cost-effectiveness of advertising.        
    Targeting Defining who customers are in order to increase the cost-effectiveness of advertising.        
    taste culture A lifestyle or aesthetic preference that certain consumers freely choose to follow.        
    taste culture A lifestyle or aesthetic preference that certain consumers freely choose to follow.        
    team sales approach Selling that is handled by a team of salespeople, technical specialists, field engineers, and supply chain specialists who coordinate the timetable from order to production to delivery; often used for complex business-to-business sales.        
    team sales approach Selling that is handled by a team of salespeople, technical specialists, field engineers, and supply chain specialists who coordinate the timetable from order to production to delivery; often used for complex business-to-business sales.        
    Telephone surveys A means of soliciting feedback by calling consumers by phone; this technique has lost popularity as respondents screen calls or put themselves on do-not-call lists.        
    Telephone surveys A means of soliciting feedback by calling consumers by phone; this technique has lost popularity as respondents screen calls or put themselves on do-not-call lists.        
    television (TV) Communications medium that allows viewers to see and hear a program; television became widely available in the 1940s and now includes major networks, independent stations, cable, broadband, and satellite.        
    television (TV) Communications medium that allows viewers to see and hear a program; television became widely available in the 1940s and now includes major networks, independent stations, cable, broadband, and satellite.        
    testimonial An execution in which an everyday consumer praises the product or service.        
    testimonial An execution in which an everyday consumer praises the product or service.        
    The Advertising Council A private, nonprofit organization that marshals volunteer talent from the advertising and communications industries, the facilities of the media, and the resources of the business and nonprofit communities to deliver critical messages to the American public.        
    The Advertising Council A private, nonprofit organization that marshals volunteer talent from the advertising and communications industries, the facilities of the media, and the resources of the business and nonprofit communities to deliver critical messages to the American public.        
    threats External factors (conditions outside of a product or brand itself) that challenge the ability to build or promote the brand or product.        
    threats External factors (conditions outside of a product or brand itself) that challenge the ability to build or promote the brand or product.        
    top-down budgeting Method in which top management sets the amount the company will spend on promotional activities for the year; it is allocated among all of the company’s advertising, PR, and other promotional programs.        
    top-down budgeting Method in which top management sets the amount the company will spend on promotional activities for the year; it is allocated among all of the company’s advertising, PR, and other promotional programs.        
    trade advertising A type of promotional push strategy; advertising by a manufacturer that aims to entice merchants to stock their product.        
    trade advertising A type of promotional push strategy; advertising by a manufacturer that aims to entice merchants to stock their product.        
    trade shows Promotional event at which manufacturers showcase their products, often in attention-getting booths or through giveaway samples and product information.        
    trade shows Promotional event at which manufacturers showcase their products, often in attention-getting booths or through giveaway samples and product information.        
    traditional communications model A one-way communication system in which the source created a message and selected the medium that carried the message to the receiver.        
    traditional communications model A one-way communication system in which the source created a message and selected the medium that carried the message to the receiver.        
    transformational advertising A literary form aimed at getting the consumer to associate the experience of product usage with some subjective sensation.        
    transformational advertising A literary form aimed at getting the consumer to associate the experience of product usage with some subjective sensation.        
    triad interviews Research technique in which a moderator interviews three people who have been screened to fit the desired demographic, psychographic, and behavioral profile.        
    triad interviews Research technique in which a moderator interviews three people who have been screened to fit the desired demographic, psychographic, and behavioral profile.        
    tweakable ads Ads that can be digitally altered so they contain elements relevant to particular viewers at the time they watch them.        
    tweakable ads Ads that can be digitally altered so they contain elements relevant to particular viewers at the time they watch them.        
    unique selling proposition (USP) A clear, memorable reason to buy the product.        
    unique selling proposition (USP) A clear, memorable reason to buy the product.        
    unique selling proposition (USP) A clear, memorable reason to buy the product.        
    unique selling proposition (USP) A clear, memorable reason to buy the product.        
    user-generated content Online venues such as blogs or Web sites where consumers review products they have bought or ask questions about a product. UGC can be in video, comment, or other parody as well.        
    user-generated content Online venues such as blogs or Web sites where consumers review products they have bought or ask questions about a product. UGC can be in video, comment, or other parody as well.        
    VALS2™ VALS2™ divides U.S. adults into eight groups according to what drives them psychologically as well as by their economic resources. The system arranges groups vertically by their resources (including such factors as income, education, energy levels, and eagerness to buy), and horizontally by self-orientation.        
    VALS2™ VALS2™ divides U.S. adults into eight groups according to what drives them psychologically as well as by their economic resources. The system arranges groups vertically by their resources (including such factors as income, education, energy levels, and eagerness to buy), and horizontally by self-orientation.        
    value proposition The clearly identifiable benefit that a certain brand provides relative to competing brands.        
    value proposition The clearly identifiable benefit that a certain brand provides relative to competing brands.        
    values appeal A psychological basis that motivates the viewer toward the advertiser’s goals by relating to people’s strong underlying beliefs about priorities in their lives and morality.        
    values appeal A psychological basis that motivates the viewer toward the advertiser’s goals by relating to people’s strong underlying beliefs about priorities in their lives and morality.        
    video ad A commercial that may appear before, during, and after a variety of content including streaming video, animation, gaming, and music video content in a player environment.        
    video ad A commercial that may appear before, during, and after a variety of content including streaming video, animation, gaming, and music video content in a player environment.        
    video news release (VNR) A public relations tool in the form of a video of an event which the marketer (or the marketer’s PR agency) produces and distributes to the media in hopes that they will show the video or feature the event.        
    video news release (VNR) A public relations tool in the form of a video of an event which the marketer (or the marketer’s PR agency) produces and distributes to the media in hopes that they will show the video or feature the event.        
    Viral marketing New media technique that involves giving consumers a reason to recruit friends and family to the product; examples include shared-minutes cell phone programs and online ads remarkable enough that people will want to send them to their friends.        
    Viral marketing New media technique that involves giving consumers a reason to recruit friends and family to the product; examples include shared-minutes cell phone programs and online ads remarkable enough that people will want to send them to their friends.        
    Weaknesses Internal factors (attributes of a product or brand itself) that are detrimental to a product or brand.        
    Weaknesses Internal factors (attributes of a product or brand itself) that are detrimental to a product or brand.        
    Web designers Ancillary companies that support ad agencies by creating Internet media for advertising.        
    Web designers Ancillary companies that support ad agencies by creating Internet media for advertising.        
    Word of mouth (WOM) Marketing that causes people to share stories about the product, brand, or campaign.        
    Word of mouth (WOM) Marketing that causes people to share stories about the product, brand, or campaign.        
    Zip codes As defined by the U.S. Postal Service, zip codes identify each of roughly forty-three thousand neighborhoods. Other countries, too, have analogous postal code systems. Zip codes are often the basis for direct mail advertising        
    Zip codes As defined by the U.S. Postal Service, zip codes identify each of roughly forty-three thousand neighborhoods. Other countries, too, have analogous postal code systems. Zip codes are often the basis for direct mail advertising        
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