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6.2: Merchandising Financial Statements

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    A merchandising company uses the same 4 financial statements we learned before: Income statement, statement of retained earnings, balance sheet, and statement of cash flows. The balance sheet used is the classified balance sheet. The income statement for a merchandiser is expanded to include groupings and subheadings necessary to make it easier for investors to read and understand. We will look at the income statement only as the other statements have been discussed previously.

    Multi-Step (or classified) income statement

    In preceding chapters, we illustrated the income statement with only two categories—revenues and expenses. In contrast, a multi-step income statement divides both revenues and expenses into operating and nonoperating (other) items. The statement also separates operating expenses into selling and administrative expenses. A multi-step income statement is also called a classified income statement.

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    The multi-step income statement shows important relationships that help in analyzing how well the company is performing. For example, by deducting cost of goods sold from operating revenues, you can determine by what amount sales revenues exceed the cost of items being sold. If this margin, called gross margin, is lower than desired, a company may need to increase its selling prices and/or decrease its cost of goods sold. The classified income statement subdivides operating expenses into selling and administrative expenses. Thus, statement users can see how much expense is incurred in selling the product and how much in administering the business. Statement users can also make comparisons with other years’ data for the same business and with other businesses. Nonoperating revenues and expenses appear at the bottom of the income statement because they are less significant in assessing the profitability of the business.

    Management chooses which income statement to present a company’s financial data. This choice may be based either on how their competitors present their data or on the costs associated with assembling the data.

    The major headings of the classified multi-step income statement are explained below:

    • Net Sales are the revenues generated by the major activities of the business—usually the sale of products or services or both less any sales discounts and sales returns and allowances.
    • Cost of goodssold is the major expense in merchandising companies and represents what the seller paid for the inventory it has sold.
    • Gross margin or gross profit is the net sales – cost of goods sold and represents the amount we charge customers above what we paid for the items. This is also referred to as a company’s markup.
    • Operating expenses for a merchandising company are those expenses, other than cost of goods sold, incurred in the normal business functions of a company. Usually, operating expenses are either selling expenses or administrative expenses. Selling expenses are expenses a company incurs in selling and marketing efforts. Examples include salaries and commissions of salespersons, expenses for salespersons’ travel, delivery, advertising, rent (or depreciation, if owned) and utilities on a sales building, sales supplies used, and depreciation on delivery trucks used in sales. Administrative expenses are expenses a company incurs in the overall management of a business. Examples include administrative salaries, rent (or depreciation, if owned) and utilities on an administrative building, insurance expense, administrative supplies used, and depreciation on office equipment.
    • Income from Operations is Gross profit (or margin) – operating expenses and represents the amount of income directly earned by business operations.
    • Other revenues and expenses are revenues and expenses not related to the sale of products or services regularly offered for sale by a business. This typically includes interest earned (interest revenue) and interest owed (interest expense).
    • Net Income is the income earned after other revenues are added and other expenses are subtracted.

    Look at these selected accounts from Hanlon’s adjusted trial balance:

    Adjusted Trial Balance Debit Credit
    Sales 275,000
    Sales discounts 2,000
    Sales returns and allowances 1,000
    Interest revenue 150
    Cost of goods sold 159,000
    Commissions expense 10,000
    Advertising expense 7,000
    Sales Salaries expense 20,000
    Rent expense – sales 12,000
    Rent expense – office 12,000
    Office Salaries expense 40,000
    Utilities expense 5,000
    Interest expense 50

    We can prepare Hanlon’s Multi-step Income statement as:

    Multi-step Income Statement
    For the Year Ended December 31
    Sales $275,000
    Less: Sales Discounts 2,000
    Sales Returns and allowances 1,000 3,000
    Net Sales (275,000 – 3,000) $272,000
    Cost of goods sold 159,000
    Gross Profit (272,000 – 159,000) $113,000
    Operating expenses:
    Selling expenses
    Commissions expense 10,000
    Advertising expense 7,000
    Sales Salaries expense 20,000
    Rent expense – sales 12,000
    Total Selling expenses 49,000
    Administrative expenses
    Rent expense – office 12,000
    Office Salaries expense 40,000
    Utilities expense 5,000
    Total Admin. Expenses 57,000
    Total Operating expenses (49,000 + 57,000) 106,000
    Income from operations (113,000 – 106,000) 7,000
    Other Revenue (Expense)
    Interest Revenue 150
    Interest Expense -50
    Total Other Revenue (expense) (150 – 50) 100
    NET INCOME (7,000 + 100) 7,100

    Reporting Cost of Goods Sold

    Cost of goods sold can be reported two ways: as a single line item or as detailed section showing net purchases and calculating cost of goods sold. When using the perpetual inventory method, cost of goods sold is reported as a single line item (as illustrated in video and example above).

    Under the periodic method, you can use a single line item in the multi-step income statement with a separate schedule of cost of goods sold OR you can report the cost of goods sold within the income statement itself. The following video reviews the periodic method entries and shows how to complete the cost of goods sold section with in the multi-step income statement.

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    To illustrate a cost of goods sold statement, Hanlon Food Store had the following unadjusted trial balance amounts:

    Debit Credit
    Merchandise Inventory 24,000
    Purchases 167,000
    Purchase discounts 3,000
    Purchase returns and allowances 8,000
    Transportation In 10,000

    Remember, the merchandise inventory on the unadjusted trial balance is the beginning balance (or ending balance from the previous period. A physical count of inventory on December 31 showed inventory of $31,000 unsold. The Cost of Goods Sold Statement would appear as:

    Hanlon Food Store
    Cost of Goods Sold Statement
    For the year ended December 31
    Merchandise Inventory, January 1 24,000
    Purchases 167,000
    Less: Purchase discount 3,000
    Purchase returns and allowances 8,000 11,000
    Net Purchases (167,000 – 156,000) 156,000
    Add: Transportation In 10,000
    Net cost of purchases (156,000 + 10,000) 166,000
    Cost of goods available for sale (24,000 + 166,000) 190,000
    Less: Merchandise Inventory, December 31 31,000
    Cost of goods sold (190,000 – 31,000) 159,000

    Other financial statements

    After the income statement is complete, we would use the net income to calculate ending retained earnings on the statement of retained earnings. We would use ending retained earnings in preparing the balance sheet. Finally, we would prepare the statement of cash flows. These financial statements are prepared the same way under either the perpetual or periodic inventory methods.

    Summary

    To summarize the important relationships in the income statement of a merchandising firm in equation form:

    • Net sales = Sales revenue – Sales discounts – Sales returns and allowances.
    • Gross margin = Net sales – Cost of goods sold.
    • Total Operating Expenses = Selling expenses + Administrative expenses.
    • Income from operations = Gross margin – Operating (selling and administrative) expenses.
    • Total other revenues (expenses) = Other Revenues – Other Expenses
    • Net income = Income from operations + Other revenues – Other expenses.

    Each of these relationships is important because of the way it relates to an overall measure of business profitability. For example, a company may produce a high gross margin on sales. However, because of large sales commissions and delivery expenses, the owner may realize only a very small amount of the gross margin as profit.

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    • Accounting Principles: A Business Perspective.. Authored by: James Don Edwards, University of Georgia & Roger H. Hermanson, Georgia State University.. Provided by: Endeavour International Corporation.. Project: The Global Text Project. License: CC BY: Attribution
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    • Prepare a Multiple Step Income Statement. Authored by: Note Pirate. Located at: youtu.be/YBWrDtBuRkA. License: All Rights Reserved. License Terms: Standard YouTube License
    • Periodic Inventory System and the Multiple Step Income Statement. Authored by: Note Pirate. Located at: youtu.be/4-T9njmqKkQ. License: All Rights Reserved. License Terms: Standard YouTube License

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