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4.1: Exercises- Unit 4

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    26201
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    SHORT Answer QUESTIONS, EXERCISES, AND PROBLEMS

    Questions

    ➢Which events during an accounting period trigger the recording of normal journal entries?

    ➢Which event triggers the making of adjusting entries?

    ➢Describe the difference between the cash basis and accrual basis of accounting.

    ➢Why are adjusting entries necessary? Why not treat every cash disbursement as an expense and every cash receipt as a revenue when the cash changes hands?

    ➢“Adjusting entries would not be necessary if the ‘pure’ cash basis of accounting were followed (assuming no mistakes were made in recording cash transactions as they occurred). Under the cash basis, receipts that are of a revenue nature are considered revenue when received, and expenditures that are of an expense nature are considered expenses when paid. It is the use of the accrual basis of accounting, where an effort is made to match expenses incurred against the revenues they create, that makes adjusting entries necessary.” Do you agree with this statement? Why?

    ➢Why do accountants not keep all the accounts at their proper balances continuously throughout the period so that adjusting entries would not have to be made before financial statements are prepared?

    ➢What is the fundamental difference between deferred items and accrued items?

    ➢Identify the types of adjusting entries included in each of the two major classes of adjusting entries.

    ➢Give an example of a journal entry for each of the following:

    • Equal growth of an expense and a liability.
    • Earning of revenue that was previously recorded as unearned revenue.
    • Equal growth of an asset and a revenue.
    • Increase in an expense and decrease in an asset.

    ➢A fellow student makes the following statement: “You can easily tell whether a company is using the cash or accrual basis of accounting. When an amount is paid for future rent or insurance services, a firm that is using the cash basis debits an expense account while a firm that is using the accrual basis debits an asset account.” Is the student correct?

    ➢You notice that the Supplies on Hand account has a debit balance of $ 2,700 at the end of the accounting period. How would you determine the extent to which this account needs adjustment?

    ➢Some assets are converted into expenses as they expire and some liabilities become revenues as they are earned. Give examples of asset and liability accounts for which this statement is true. Give examples of asset and liability accounts to which the statement does not apply.

    ➢Give the depreciation formula to compute straight-line depreciation for a one-year period.

    ➢What does the term accrued liability mean?

    ➢What is meant by the term service potential?

    ➢When assets are received before they are earned, what type of an account is credited? As the amounts are earned, what type of account is credited?

    ➢What does the word accrued mean? Is there a conceptual difference between interest payable and accrued interest payable?

    ➢Matching expenses incurred with revenues earned is more difficult than matching expenses paid with revenues received. Do you think the effort is worthwhile?

    ➢Why are the financial statements prepared before the adjusting and closing entries are journalized and posted?

    ➢You have taken over a set of accounting books for a small business as a part-time job. At the end of the first accounting period, you have partially completed the trial balance by entering the proper ledger accounts and balances in the unadjusted Trial Balance. You turn to the manager and ask, “Where is the list of additional information I can use in entering the adjusting entries?” The manager indicates there is no such list. (In all the text problems you have done, you have always been given this information.) How would you obtain the information for this real-life situation? What are the consequences of not making all of the required adjustments at the end of the accounting period?

    ➢How is the statement of retained earnings prepared?

    ➢What is the purpose of closing entries? What accounts are not affected by closing entries?

    ➢Is it possible to prepare monthly financial statements without journalizing and posting adjusting and closing entries? How?

    ➢What is the purpose of a post-closing trial balance?

    ➢Define an accounting system.

    ➢How is a classified balance sheet different than an unclassified balance sheet?

    Real world question Find financial statements of a company on the web. What company did you choose? Approximately what percentage of the depreciable assets under property, plant, and equipment has been depreciated as of the end of the most recent year shown?

    Real world question Find financial statements of a company on the web. What company did you choose? Identify the classifications (or categories) of assets and liabilities used by the company in its balance sheet.

    Exercises

    Exercise A List the steps in the accounting cycle. Would the system still work if any of the steps were performed out of order?

    Exercise BA one-year insurance policy was purchased on August 1 for $2,400, and the following entry was made at that time:

    Prepaid Insurance 2,400
    Cash 2,400

    What adjusting entry is necessary at December 31, the end of the accounting year? Show how the T-accounts for Prepaid Insurance and Insurance Expense would appear after the entries are posted.

    Exercise C Assume that rent of $ 12,000 was paid on September 1, to cover a one-year period from that date. Prepaid Rent was debited. If financial statements are prepared only on December 31 of each year, what adjusting entry is necessary on December 31 of the first year, to bring the accounts involved to their proper balances?

    Exercise D Supplies were purchased for cash on May 2 for $ 8,000. Show how this purchase would be recorded. Then show the adjusting entry that would be necessary, assuming that $ 2,500 of the supplies remained at the end of the year and the beginning balance for supplies was $500.

    Exercise E Assume that a company acquired a building on January 1, at a cost of $1,000,000. The building has an estimated useful life of 40 years and an estimated residual value of $200,000. What adjusting entry is needed on December 31 to record the depreciation for the entire year?

    Exercise F On September 1, Professional Golfer Journal, Inc., received a total of $120,000 as payment in advance for one-year subscriptions to a monthly magazine. A liability account was credited to record this cash receipt. By the end of the year, one-third of the magazines paid for in advance had been delivered. Give the entries to record the receipt of the subscription fees and to adjust the accounts at December 31, assuming annual financial statements are prepared at year-end.

    Exercise G On April 15, Rialto Theater sold $ 90,000 in tickets for the summer musicals to be performed (one per month) during June, July, and August. On July 15, Rialto Theater discovered that the group that was to perform the July and August musicals could not do so. It was too late to find another group qualified to perform the musicals. A decision was made to refund the remaining unearned ticket revenue to its ticket holders, and this was done on July 20. Show the appropriate journal entries to be made on April 15, June 30, and July 20. Rialto has a June 30th year-end.

    Exercise H Guilty & Innocent, a law firm, performed legal services in late December for clients. The $30,000 of services would be billed to the clients in January of next year. Give the adjusting entry that is necessary on December 31, if financial statements are prepared at the end of each month.

    Exercise I A firm borrowed $30,000 on November 1. By December 31, $300 of interest had been incurred. Prepare the adjusting entry required on December 31.

    Exercise J Convenient Mailing Services, Inc., incurs salaries at the rate of $ 3,000 per day. The last payday in January is Friday, January 27. Salaries for Monday and Tuesday of the next week have not been recorded or paid as of January 31. Financial statements are prepared monthly. Give the necessary adjusting entry on January 31.

    Exercise K The Trial Balance of the Printer Repair Company at December 31, contains the following account balances listed in alphabetical order to increase your skill in sorting amounts to the proper order. Assume each account balance follows the normal balance rules.

    Printer Repair Company

    Account Balances
    December 31
    Accounts Payable $ 41,000
    Accounts Receivable 92,000
    Accumulated Depreciation—Buildings 25,000
    Accumulated Depreciation—Equipment 9,000
    Buildings 140,000
    Capital Stock 65,000
    Cash 60,000
    Equipment 36,000
    Prepaid Insurance 3,600
    Retained Earnings, January 1 4,800
    Salaries Expense 96,000
    Service Revenue 290,000
    Supplies on Hand 4,000
    Utilities Expense 3,200

    Using these account balances and the following additional information, prepare the adjusting journal entries for Printer Repair Company. Post the entries and prepare the Adjusted Trial Balance in the proper order.

    • Supplies on hand at December 31, have a cost of $ 2,400.
    • The balance in the Prepaid Insurance account represents the cost of a two-year insurance policy covering the period from January 1 this year, through December 31 of next year.
    • The estimated lives of depreciable assets are buildings, 40 years, and equipment, 20 years. No salvage values are anticipated.

    Exercise L Refer to the adjusted trial balance prepared in the Printer Repair Company exercise (Ex K). Prepare the closing journal entries.

    Exercise M Rubino Company reported net income of $100,000 for the current year. Examination of the financial data indicates that the following items were ignored:

    • Accrued salaries were $ 6,000 at December 31.
    • Depreciation on equipment acquired on July 1 amounted to $ 4,000.

    Based on this information, (a) what adjusting journal entries should have been made at December 31, and (b) what is the correct net income?

    Exercise N After adjustment, these selected account balances of Cold Stream Campground are:

    Debits Credits
    Retained earnings $540,000.00
    Rental revenue 960000
    Salaries expense $336,000.00
    Depreciated expense – Buildings 64000
    Utilities expense 208000
    Dividends 32000

    Prepare the journal entries to close the books for the period. What would be the ending balance in Retained Earnings?

    Exercise O The following account balances appeared in the Adjusted Trial Balance prepared for Liu Company for the year ended December 31:

    Account Titles Trial Balance

    Debit Credit
    Service Revenue 330,000
    Advertising Expense 1,350
    Salaries Expense 130,000
    Utilities Expense 2,250
    Insurance Expense 900
    Rent Expense 6,750
    Supplies Expense 2,250
    Depreciation Expense—Equipment 4,500
    Interest Expense 562
    Interest Revenue 1,125

    Prepare the closing journal entries.

    Exercise P Which of the following accounts are likely to appear in the post-closing trial balance for the Blake Company?

    • Accounts Receivable
    • Cash
    • Service Revenue
    • Buildings
    • Salaries Expense
    • Capital Stock
    • Dividends
    • Accounts Payable
    • Income Summary
    • Unearned Subscription Fees

    Exercise Q Using the legend at the right, determine the category (number) into which you would place each of these items.

    Item Legend
    a. Land. 1. Current assets.
    b. Marketable securities. 2. Long-term investments.
    c. Notes payable, due in three years. 3. Property, plant, and equipment.
    d. Taxes withheld from employees. 4. Intangible assets.
    e. Patents. 5. Current liabilities.
    f. Retained earnings. 6. Long-term liabilities.
    g. Unearned subscription fees. 7. Stockholders’ equity.
    h. Bonds of another corporation (a 20-year investment).
    i. Notes payable, due in six months.
    j. Accumulated depreciation.

    Exercise R The following data are from the 2001 annual report of The Procter & Gamble Company and its subsidiaries. This company markets a broad range of laundry, cleaning, paper, beauty care, health care, food, and beverage products in more than 140 countries around the world. Leading brands include Ariel, Crest, Pampers, Pantene, Crisco, Vicks, and Max Factor. The dollar amounts are in millions.

    June 30
    2001 2000
    Current assets $10,889 $10,146
    Current liabilities 9,846 10,141

    Calculate the current ratios for the two years. Comment on whether the trend is favorable or unfavorable.

    Problems

    Problem A Among other items, the trial balance of Filmblaster, Inc., a movie rental company, at December 31 of the current year includes the following account balances:

    Debits
    Prepaid Insurance $ 10,000
    Prepaid Rent $ 14,400
    Supplies on Hand $ 2,800

    Examination of the records shows that adjustments should be made for the following items:

    1. Of the prepaid insurance in the trial balance, $ 4,000 is for coverage during the months after December 31 of the current year.
    2. The balance in the Prepaid Rent account is for a 12-month period that started October 1 of the current year.
    3. $ 300 of interest has been earned but not received.
    4. Supplies used during the year amount to $ 1,800.

    Prepare the annual year-end adjusting journal entries at December 31.

    Problem B Marathon Magazine, Inc., has the following account balances, among others, in its trial balance at December 31 of the current year:

    Debits Credits
    Supplies on Hand……………… $3,720
    Prepaid Rent ……………………. 7,200
    Unearned Subscription Fees … $15,000
    Subscriptions Revenue……….. 261,000
    Salaries Expense ………………. 123,000
    • The inventory of supplies on hand at December 31 amounts to $ 720.
    • The balance in the Prepaid Rent account is for a one-year period starting October 1 of the current year.
    • One-third of the $ 15,000 balance in Unearned Subscription Fees has been earned.
    • Since the last payday, the employees of the company have earned additional salaries in the amount of $ 5,430.
    1. Prepare the year-end adjusting journal entries at December 31.
    2. Open ledger accounts for each of the accounts involved, enter the balances as shown in the trial balance, post the adjusting journal entries, and calculate year-end balances.

    Problem C The following adjusted trial balance is for Jasper Appliance Repair Company:

    JASPER APPLIANCE REPAIR COMPANY
    Adjusted Trial Balance
    June 30
    Debits Credits
    Cash $ 63,000
    Accounts Receivable 42,000
    Trucks 110,000
    Accumulated Depreciation—Trucks $ 30,000
    Accounts Payable 10,800
    Notes Payable 20,000
    Capital Stock 50,000
    Retained Earnings 5,500
    Dividends 10,000
    Service Revenue 230,000
    Rent Expense 12,000
    Advertising Expense 5,000
    Salaries Expense 90,000
    Supplies Expense 1,500
    Insurance Expense 1,200
    Depreciation Expense—Trucks 10,000
    Interest Expense 1,000
    Miscellaneous Expense 600
    $346,300 $346,300

    Prepare the closing journal entries at the end of the fiscal year, June 30 and the post closing trial balance.

    Problem D The adjusted trial balance for Denver Architects , Inc., follows:

    DENVER ARCHITECTS, INC.
    Adjusted Trial Balance
    December 31
    Debits Credits
    Cash $ 90,000
    Accounts Receivable 20,000
    Interest Receivable 200
    Notes Receivable 4,000
    Prepaid Insurance 960
    Prepaid Rent 2,400
    Supplies on Hand 600
    Equipment 60,000
    Accumulated Depreciation—Equipment $ 12,500
    Buildings 140,000
    Accumulated Depreciation—Buildings 15,000
    Land 56,240
    Accounts Payable 60,000
    Notes Payable 10,000
    Interest Payable 750
    Salaries Payable 7,000
    Capital Stock 100,000
    Retained Earnings, January 1 20,200
    Dividends 40,000
    Service Revenue 360,000
    Insurance Expense 1,920
    Rent Expense 9,600
    Advertising Expense 1,200
    Depreciation Expense—Equipment 2,500
    Depreciation Expense—Buildings 3,000
    Supplies Expense 2,280
    Salaries Expense 150,000
    Interest Expense 750
    Interest Revenue 200
    $ 585,650 $ 585,650
    1. Prepare an income statement.
    2. Prepare a statement of retained earnings.
    3. Prepare a classified balance sheet.

    Problem E The following trial balance and additional data are for Sure Sale Reality Company

    SURE SALE REALTY COMPANY
    Trial Balance
    December 31
    Debits Credits
    Cash $ 62,800
    Accounts Receivable 117,120
    Prepaid Rent 46,080
    Equipment 173,760
    Accumulated Depreciation—Equipment $ 21,120
    Accounts Payable 62,400
    Capital Stock 96,000
    Retained Earnings, 2010 January 1 49,920
    Dividends 46,080
    Commissions Revenue 653,200
    Salaries Expense 321,600
    Travel Expense 96,480
    Miscellaneous Expense 18,720
    $ 882,640 $ 882,640

    The prepaid rent is for the 12 months beginning July 1.

    The equipment has an expected life of 10 years with no salvage value.

    Accrued salaries are $ 11,520.

    Travel expenses accrued but unreimbursed to sales staff at December 31 were $ 17,280

    1. Prepare adjusting journal entries and post
    2. Prepare an adjusted trial balance.
    3. Prepare closing journal entries.

    Problem F The following trial balance and additional data are for South Sea Tours, Inc.:

    SOUTH SEA TOURS, INC.
    Trial Balance
    December 31
    Debits Credits
    Cash $109,050
    Accounts Receivable 133,750
    Prepaid Insurance 4,350
    Prepaid Advertising 18,000
    Notes Receivable 11,250
    Land 90,000
    Buildings 165,000
    Accumulated Depreciation—Buildings $ 49,500
    Office Equipment 83,400
    Accumulated Depreciation—Office Equipment 16,680
    Accounts Payable 56,850
    Notes Payable 75,000
    Capital Stock 240,000
    Retained Earnings, January 1 47,820
    Dividends 30,000
    Service Revenue 368,350
    Salaries Expense 96,000
    Travel Expense 111,000
    Interest Revenue 600
    Interest Expense 3,000
    $854,800 $854,800

    The company consistently followed the policy of initially debiting all prepaid items to asset accounts.

    The buildings have an expected life of 50 years with no salvage value.

    The office equipment has an expected life of 10 years with no salvage value.

    Accrued interest on notes receivable is $ 450.

    Accrued interest on the notes payable is $ 1,000.

    Accrued salaries are $ 2,100.

    Expired prepaid insurance is $ 3,750.

    Expired prepaid advertising is $ 16,500.

    1. Prepare the required adjusting journal entries and post.
    2. Prepare an adjusted trial balance.

    Problem G The following trial balance and additional data are for Florida Time-Share Property Management Company:

    FLORIDA TIME-SHARE PROPERTY MANAGEMENT COMPANY
    Trial Balance
    December 31
    Debits Credits
    Cash $424,000
    Prepaid Rent 28,800
    Prepaid Insurance 7,680
    Supplies on Hand 2,400
    Office Equipment 24,000
    Accumulated Depreciation—Office Equipment $ 5,760
    Automobiles 64,000
    Accumulated Depreciation—Automobiles 16,000
    Accounts Payable 2,880
    Unearned Management Fees 12,480
    Capital Stock 360,000
    Retained Earnings, January 1 120,640
    Dividends 28,000
    Commissions Revenue 260,000
    Management Fee Revenue 19,200
    Salaries Expense 199,840
    Advertising Expense 2,400
    Gas and Oil Expense 14,240
    Miscellaneous Expense 1,600
    $796,960 $796,960

    Insurance expense for the year, $ 3,840.

    Rent expense for the year, $ 19,200.

    Depreciation expense: office equipment, $ 2,880; and automobiles, $ 12,800.

    Salaries earned but unpaid at December 31, $ 26,640.

    Supplies on hand at December 31, $ 1,000.

    The unearned management fees were received and recorded on November 1. The advance payment covered six months’ management of an apartment building.

    1. Prepare the adjusting journal entries and post.
    2. Prepare the adjusted trial balance.
    3. Prepare an income statement.
    4. Prepare a statement of retained earnings.
    5. Prepare a classified balance sheet.
    6. Prepare closing entries and post.
    7. Prepare a post closing trial balance.

    Alternate problems

    Alternate problem A The trial balance of Caribbean Vacation Tours, Inc., at December 31 of the current year includes, among other items, the following account balances:

    Debits Credits
    Prepaid Insurance …………………………………. $24,000
    Prepaid Rent ………………………………………… 24,000
    Buildings……………………………………………… 188,000
    Accumulated Depreciation—Buildings…………. $31,600
    Salaries Expense …………………………………… 200,000

    The balance in the Prepaid Insurance account is the advance premium for one year from September 1 of the current year.

    The buildings are expected to last 25 years, with an expected residual value of $ 30,000.

    Salaries incurred but not paid as of December 31 amount to $ 8,400.

    The balance in Prepaid Rent is for a one-year period that started March 1 of the current year.

    Prepare the annual year-end adjusting journal entries at December 31.

    Alternate problem B Among the account balances shown in the trial balance of Dunwoody Mail Station, Inc., at December 31 of the current year are the following:

    Debits Credits
    Supplies on hand $10,000
    Prepaid insurance 6,000
    Buildings 168,000
    Accumulated deprecation and buildings $ 39,000

    The inventory of supplies on hand at December 31 amounts to $ 3,000.

    The balance in the Prepaid Insurance account is for a two-year policy taken out June 1 of the current year.

    Depreciation for the buildings is based on the cost shown in the Buildings account, less residual value estimated at USD18,000. When acquired, the lives of the buildings were estimated at 50 years each.

    1. Prepare the year-end adjusting journal entries at December 31.
    2. Open ledger accounts for each of the accounts involved, enter the balances as shown in the trial balance, post the adjusting journal entries, and calculate year-end balances.

    Alternate problem C The following adjusted trial balance is for Dream Home Realty Company:

    DREAM HOME REALTY COMPANY
    Adjusted Trial Balance
    June 30
    Debits Credits
    Cash $ 98,000
    Accounts Receivable 40,000
    Office Equipment 35,000
    Accumulated Depreciation—Office Equipment $ 14,000
    Automobiles 40,000
    Accumulated Depreciation—Automobiles 20,000
    Accounts Payable 63,000
    Capital Stock 75,000
    Retained Earnings, beginning 54,700
    Dividends 5,000
    Commissions Revenue 170,000
    Salaries Expense 25,000
    Commissions Expense 120,000
    Gas and Oil Expense 4,000
    Rent Expense 14,800
    Supplies Expense 1,400
    Utilities Expense 2,000
    Depreciation Expense—Office Equipment 3,500
    Depreciation Expense—Automobiles 8,000
    $ 396,700 $396,700

    Prepare the closing journal entries at the end of the June 30 fiscal year.

    Alternate problem D The adjusted trial balance for Penrod Insurance Consultants, Inc., follows:

    Penrod Insurance Consultants, Inc.
    Adjusted Trial Balance
    December 31
    Debits Credits
    Cash $ 107,200
    Accounts Receivable 68,000
    Interest Receivable 400
    Notes Receivable 20,000
    Prepaid Insurance 2,400
    Supplies on Hand 1,800
    Land 32,000
    Buildings 190,000
    Accumulated Depreciation—Buildings $ 40,000
    Office Equipment 28,000
    Accumulated Depreciation—Office Equipment 8,000
    Accounts Payable 48,000
    Salaries Payable 8,500
    Interest Payable 900
    Notes Payable (due next year) 64,000
    Capital Stock 120,000
    Retained Earnings, January 1 42,800
    Dividends 40,000
    Commissions Revenue 392,520
    Advertising Expense 24,000
    Commissions Expense 75,440
    Travel Expense 12,880
    Depreciation Expense—Buildings 8,500
    Salaries Expense 98,400
    Depreciation Expense—Office Equipment 2,800
    Supplies Expense 3,800
    Insurance Expense 3,600
    Repairs Expense 1,900
    Utilities Expense 3,400
    Interest Expense 1,800
    Interest Revenue 1,600
    $726,320 $726,320
    1. Prepare an income statement for the year ended December 31.
    2. Prepare a statement of retained earnings.
    3. Prepare a classified balance sheet.

    Alternate problem E The following trial balance and additional data are for Ramon Data Processing Company:

    RAMON DATA PROCESSING COMPANY
    Trial Balance
    December 31
    Debits Credits
    Cash $ 76,000
    Accounts Receivable 98,000
    Prepaid Rent 7,200
    Prepaid Insurance 2,400
    Equipment 80,000
    Accumulated Depreciation—Equipment $ 40,000
    Accounts Payable 30,000
    Capital Stock 100,000
    Retained Earnings, 2010 January 1 65,600
    Dividends 24,000
    Service Revenue 370,000
    Commissions Expense 270,000
    Travel Expense 36,000
    Miscellaneous Expense 12,000
    $ 605,600 $ 605,600

    The prepaid rent is for the 2- year period beginning January 1 of this year.

    The equipment is expected to last 10 years with no salvage value.

    The prepaid insurance was for the 12-month period beginning April 1

    Accrued commissions payable total $ 3,000 at December 31.

    1. Prepare the adjusting journal entries and post.
    2. Prepare the adjusted trial balance.

    Alternate problem F The following trial balance and additional data are for Best-Friend Pet Hospital, Inc.

    BEST-FRIEND PET HOSPITAL, INC.
    Trial Balance
    December 31 Debits Credits
    Cash $ 16,490
    Accounts Receivable 54,390
    Supplies on Hand 900
    Prepaid Fire Insurance 1,800
    Prepaid Rent 21,600
    Equipment 125,000
    Accumulated Depreciation —Equipment $ 25,000
    Accounts Payable 29,550
    Notes Payable 9,000
    Capital Stock 150,000
    Retained Earnings, January 1 20,685
    Service Revenue 179,010
    Interest Expense 225
    Salaries Expense 142,200
    Advertising Expense 29,250
    Supplies Expense 2,135
    Miscellaneous Expense 3,705
    Legal and Accounting Expense 13,750
    Utilities Expense 1,800
    $ 413,245 $ 413,245

    The company consistently followed the policy of initially debiting all prepaid items to asset accounts.

    Prepaid fire insurance is $ 600 as of the end of the year.

    Supplies on hand are $ 638 as of the end of the year.

    Prepaid rent is $ 2,625 as of the end of the year.

    The equipment is expected to last 10 years with no salvage value.

    Accrued salaries are $ 2,625.

    1. Prepare the adjusting entries for December 31 and post.
    2. Prepare an adjusted trial balance.
    3. Prepare the December 31 closing entries and post.
    4. Prepare a post-closing trial balance.

    Alternate problem G The following trial balance and additional data are for Roswell Interior Decorators, Inc.:

    ROSWELL INTERIOR DECORATORS, INC
    Trial Balance
    2010 December 31
    Debits Credits
    Cash $ 85,400
    Accounts Receivable 81,600
    Supplies on Hand 4,000
    Prepaid Rent 12,240
    Prepaid Advertising 2,880
    Prepaid Insurance 4,400
    Office Equipment 7,600
    Accumulated Depreciation—Office Equipment $ 2,760
    Office Furniture 29,200
    Accumulated Depreciation—Office Furniture 8,280
    Accounts Payable 25,200
    Notes Payable (due next year) 4,000
    Capital Stock 100,000
    Retained Earnings, January 1 22,400
    Dividends 45,520
    Service Revenue 250,000
    Salaries Expense 98,800
    Utilities Expense 20,000
    Miscellaneous Expense 24,000
    $ 412,640 $ 412,640

    Supplies on hand at December 31, are $ 1,000.

    Rent expense for the year is $ 10,000.

    Advertising expense for the year is $ 2,304.

    Insurance expense for the year is $ 2,400.

    Depreciation expense is office equipment, $ 912, and office furniture, $ 3,000.

    Accrued interest on notes payable is $ 150.

    Accrued salaries are $ 4,200.

    1. Prepare the adjusting journal entries and post.
    2. Prepare an adjusted trial balance.
    3. Prepare an income statement.
    4. Prepare a statement of retained earnings.
    5. Prepare a classified balance sheet.
    6. Prepare closing entries.
    7. Prepare a post-closing trial balance.

    Alternate Problem H Jupiter Publishing Company began operations on 2010 December 1. The company’s bookkeeper intended to use the cash basis of accounting. Consequently, the bookkeeper recorded all cash receipts and disbursements for items relating to operations in revenue and expense accounts. No adjusting entries were made prior to preparing the financial statements for December.

    Dec. 1 Issued capital stock for $ 300,000 cash.

    3 Received $ 144,000 for magazine subscriptions to run for two years from this date. The magazine is published monthly on the 23rd.

    4 Paid for advertising to be run in a national periodical for six months (starting this month). The cost was $ 36,000.

    7 Purchased for cash an insurance policy to cover a two-year period beginning December 15, $ 24,000.

    12 Paid the annual rent on the building, $ 36,000, effective through 2011 November 30.

    15 Received $ 216,000 cash for two-year subscriptions starting with the December issue.

    15 Salaries for the period December 1–15 amounted to $ 48,000. Beginning as of this date, salaries will be paid on the 5th and 20th of each month for the preceding two-week period.

    20 Salaries for the period December 1–15 were paid.

    23 Supplies purchased for cash, $ 21,600. (Only $ 1,800 of these were subsequently used in 2010.)

    27 Printing costs applicable equally to the next six issues beginning with the December issue were paid in cash, $ 144,000.

    31 Cash sales of the December issue, $ 84,000.

    31 Unpaid salaries for the period December 16–31 amounted to $ 22,000.

    31 Sales on account of December issue, $ 14,000.

    1. Prepare journal entries for the transactions as the bookkeeper prepared them.
    2. Prepare journal entries as they would have been prepared under the accrual basis. Where the entry is the same as under the cash basis, merely indicate “same”. Where possible, record the original transaction so that no adjusting entry would be necessary at the end of the month. Ignore explanations.

    Beyond the numbers—Critical thinking

    Business decision case A Heather and Dan Holt met while both were employed in the interior trim and upholstery department of an auto manufacturer. After their marriage, they decided to earn some extra income by doing small jobs involving canvas, vinyl, and upholstered products. Their work was considered excellent, and at the urging of their customers, they decided to go into business for themselves, operating out of the basement of the house they owned. To do this, they invested $ 120,000 cash in their business. They spent $ 10,500 for a sewing machine (expected life, 10 years) and $ 12,000 for other miscellaneous tools and equipment (expected life, 5 years). They undertook only custom work, with the customers purchasing the required materials, to avoid stocking any inventory other than supplies. Generally, they required an advance deposit on all jobs.

    The business seemed successful from the start, as the Holts received orders from many customers. But they felt something was wrong. They worked hard and charged competitive prices. Yet there seemed to be barely enough cash available from the business to cover immediate personal needs. Summarized, the checkbook of the business for 2010, their second year of operations, showed:

    Balance, 2010 January 1 $ 99,200
    Cash received from customers:
    For work done in 2009 $ 36,000
    For work done in 2010 200,000
    For work to be done in 2011 48,000 284,000
    $ 383,200
    Cash paid out:
    Two-year insurance policy dated 2010 January 1 $ 19,200
    Utilities 48,000
    Supplies 104,000
    Other Expenses 72,000
    Taxes, including sales taxes 26,400
    Dividends 40,000 309,600
    Balance, 2010 December 31 $ 73,600

    Considering how much they worked, the Holts were concerned that the cash balance decreased by $ 25,600 even though they only received dividends of $ 40,000. Their combined income from the auto manufacturer had been $ 45,000. They were seriously considering giving up their business and going back to work for the auto manufacturer. They turned to you for advice. You discovered the following:

    Of the supplies purchased in 2010, $ 24,000 were used on jobs billed to customers in 2010; no supplies were used for any other work.

    Work completed in 2010 and billed to customers for which cash had not yet been received by year-end amounted to $ 40,000.

    Prepare a written report for the Holts, responding to their belief that their business is not sufficiently profitable. (Hint: Prepare an income statement for 2010 and include it in your report.)

    Annual report analysis B Using the Annual report appendix, calculate the current ratios for the two years shown for The Limited, Inc. Write a summary of the results of your calculations. Also, look at some of the other data provided by the company in preparing your comments. For instance, look at the net income for the last three years.

    Broader perspective – Writing experience C Read the “A broader perspective: Skills for the long haul”. Write a description of a career in public accounting broader perspective at each level within the firm. Discuss the skills needed and how you could develop these skills.

    Group project D In teams of two or three students, interview a management accountant. Management accountants may have the title of chief financial officer (CFO), controller, or some other accounting title within a company. Seek information on the advantages and disadvantages of working as a management accountant. Also inquire about the nature of the work and any training programs offered by the company. As a team, write a memorandum to the instructor summarizing the results of the interview. The heading of the memorandum should contain the date, to whom it is written, from whom, and the subject matter.

    Group project E With a small group of students, obtain an annual report of a company in which you have some interest. You may obtain the annual report from your instructor, the library, the Internet, or the company. Describe the nature of each item on the classified balance sheet. You may have to do library research on some of the items. Also, calculate the current ratio for the most recent two years and comment. Write a report to your instructor summarizing the results of the project.

    Group project F With a small group of students and using library sources, write a paper comparing the features of three different accounting software packages (such as Peachtree Complete, Quikbooks Pro, DacEasy, MYOB Business Essentials, NetSuite Small Businee and Cougar Mountain ). Give the strengths and weaknesses of each. Cite sources for the information and treat direct quotes properly.

    Using the Internet—A view of the real world

    Visit the following Internet site:

    www.merck.com

    Pursue choices you are offered on the screen under Investor Relations until you locate the most recent consolidated balance sheet. In a short report to your instructor, describe how you got to the balance sheet and identify the major headings used in the balance sheet. For instance, the first such heading is Assets. Also, calculate the current ratio.

    Visit the following Internet site:

    http://www.kodak.com

    Type in “Annual report” in the search box to locate the most recent annual report and then find the consolidated statement of financial position. Identify the major headings within the balance sheet and calculate the current ratio for the most recent year. Write a memo to your instructor summarizing your findings.

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    • Accounting Principles: A Business Perspective. Authored by: James Don Edwards, University of Georgia & Roger H. Hermanson, Georgia State University. Provided by: Endeavour International Corporation. Project: The Global Text Project . License: CC BY: Attribution

    4.1: Exercises- Unit 4 is shared under a CC BY license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by LibreTexts.

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