LO1 – Describe merchandising and explain the financial statement components of sales, cost of goods sold, merchandise inventory, and gross profit; differentiate between the perpetual and periodic inventory systems.
Merchandisers buy and resell products. Merchandise inventory, an asset, is purchased from suppliers and resold to customers to generate sales revenue. The cost of the merchandise inventory sold is an expense called cost of goods sold. The profit realized on the sale of merchandise inventory before considering any other expenses is called gross profit. Gross profit may be expressed as a dollar amount or as a percentage. To track merchandise inventory and cost of goods sold in real time, a perpetual inventory system is used; the balance in each of Merchandise Inventory and Cost of Goods Sold is always up-to-date. In a periodic inventory system, a physical count of the inventory must be performed in order to determine the balance in Merchandise Inventory and Cost of Goods Sold.
LO2 – Analyze and record purchase transactions for a merchandiser.
In a perpetual inventory system, a merchandiser debits Merchandise Inventory regarding the purchase of merchandise for resale from a supplier. Any purchase returns and allowances or purchase discounts are credited to Merchandise Inventory as they occur to keep the accounts up-to-date.
LO3 – Analyze and record sales transactions for a merchandiser.
In a perpetual inventory system, a merchandiser records two entries at the time of sale: one to record the sale and a second to record the cost of the sale. Sales returns that are returned to inventory also require two entries: one to reverse the sale by debiting a sales returns and allowances account and a second to restore the merchandise to inventory by debiting Merchandise Inventory and crediting Cost of Goods Sold. Sales returns not restored to inventory as well as sales allowances are recorded with one entry: debit sales returns and allowances and credit cash or accounts receivable. Sales discounts are recorded when a credit customer submits their payment within the discount period specified.
LO4 – Record adjustments to merchandise inventory.
A physical count of merchandise inventory is performed and the total compared to the general ledger balance of Merchandise Inventory. Discrepancies are recorded as an adjusting entry that debits cost of goods sold and credits Merchandise Inventory.
LO5 – Explain and prepare a classified multiple-step income statement for a merchandiser.
A classified multiple-step income statement for a merchandiser is for internal use because of the detail provided. Sales, less sales returns and allowances and sales discounts, results in net sales. Net sales less cost of goods sold equals gross profit. Expenses are shown based on both their function and nature. The functional or group headings are: operating expenses, selling expenses, and general and administrative expenses. Within each grouping, the nature of expenses is detailed including: depreciation, salaries, advertising, wages, and insurance. A specific expense can be divided between groupings.
LO6 – Explain the closing process for a merchandiser.
The steps in preparing closing entries for a merchandiser are the same as for a service company. The difference is that a merchandiser will need to close income statement accounts unique to merchandising such as: Sales, Sales Returns and Allowances, Sales Discounts, and Cost of Goods Sold.
LO7 – Explain and identify the entries regarding purchase and sales transactions in a periodic inventory system.
A periodic inventory system maintains a Merchandise Inventory account but does not have a Cost of Goods Sold account. The Merchandise Inventory account is updated at the end of the accounting period as a result of a physical inventory count. Because a merchandiser using a period system does not use a Merchandise Inventory account to record purchase or sales transactions during the accounting period, it maintains accounts that are different than under a perpetual system, namely, Purchases, Purchase Returns and Allowances, Purchase Discounts, and Transportation-in.