Skills to Develop
- Understand ethical issues associated with budgeting.
Question: Although bottom-up budgeting, in which management elicits input from employees throughout the company, is effective in actively engaging those who have to achieve the budgeted goals, this type of budgeting is not free from problems. Ethical issues often arise in the budgeting process, particularly when employees and managers are evaluated by comparing their actual results to the budget. How might ethical issues arise in the budgeting process?
To demonstrate how ethical dilemmas might arise, assume you are a manager and you help upper management establish the master budget (this is the planning phase). Furthermore, you are evaluated based on achieving budgeted profit on a quarterly basis (this is the control phase). In fact, you will receive a $10,000 quarterly bonus, in addition to your base salary, if you meet or exceed budgeted profit. There is an inherent conflict between the planning and control phases of this process. You are helping the company plan, but you also want to be sure budgeted profit is as low as possible so you can get the $10,000 bonus.
Establishing a sales and profit budget that is considerably lower than what will likely happen causes problems for the entire organization. Production may be short of materials and labor, causing inefficiencies in the production process. Selling and administrative support may be lacking due to underestimating sales. Customers will not be satisfied if they must wait for the product. The dilemma you face as a manager in this situation is whether to do what is best for you (set a low profit estimate to earn the bonus) or do what is best for the company (estimate accurately so the budget reflects true sales and production needs).
Organizations must recognize this conflict and have processes in place to ensure both the interests of individual employees and the interests of the organization as a whole are served. For example, employees can be rewarded not just for meeting goals but also for providing accurate estimates. Perhaps a long-term stock option incentive system would provide motivation to do what is best for the organization, thereby increasing shareholder value. Whatever incentive system is implemented, organizations must promote honest employee input and beware of fraudulent reporting to achieve financial targets.
An inherent conflict often exists between the planning and control phases of budgeting. During the planning phase, organizations are most concerned about getting accurate estimates that lead to positive results. The control phase requires evaluating performance of employees by comparing actual results to the operating budget. Employees often must decide between doing what is best for the individual employee and what is best for the organization.
REVIEW PROBLEM 9.9
Assume you are the manager of the computer division of High Tech Retail, Inc. You are asked to help the company prepare a budgeted income statement for the computer division before the start of each fiscal year. At the completion of each fiscal year, division managers receive a bonus equal to 10 percent of actual net income in excess of budgeted net income.
Describe the ethical conflict facing you as division manager when asked to help create the budgeted income statement for your division.
Employees who are evaluated in the control phase by comparing actual results to budgeted information have an incentive to create a budget that is easy to achieve, and perhaps unrealistic. This can create problems for the organization as a whole since inventory purchases are made based on budgeted sales. If each of the division managers submits a sales budget that significantly underestimates sales, the company will likely have a shortage of inventory and lose out on sales as customers go elsewhere to find the product. Although the managers will have an easier time achieving sales and profit goals, the company as a whole will suffer. The ethical dilemma of choosing between doing what is best for the division manager and what is best for the organization can ultimately lead to lower sales and dissatisfied customers.