# 9.4: Chapter 9 Key Terms

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Analysis of Variance

also referred to as ANOVA, is a method of testing whether or not the means of three or more populations are equal. The method is applicable if:

• all populations of interest are normally distributed.
• the populations have equal standard deviations.
• samples (not necessarily of the same size) are randomly and independently selected from each population.

The test statistic for analysis of variance is the $$F$$-ratio.

Between-Groups Variance

an estimate of the average variance among sample means (i.e., from the different groups) across all of the groups.

One-Way ANOVA

an analysis of variance with one independent (grouping) variable.

Within-Groups Variance

an estimate of the average of the sample variances (i.e., within the different groups) across all of the groups.

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