Many strategies fall readily into one of a small number of common types. A type is not a strategy, because a type is not a workable plan. For a plan to be workable, the plan must specify who is to act and when the action is to occur. When a strategy fits into a type, however, the strategy may be immediately assessed as better or worse because of its type.
A liquidation strategy, whereby the entire firm is offered for sale, is a case of strategic failure. Liquidation is an admission of defeat rather than a practical strategy. Firms do not need strategic managers to liquidate themselves. They need lawyers.
6.2: Continuous Improvement
Continuous improvement is philosophy, not strategy. It implies continuing to do what has been done, with efforts made towards small improvements in process and product from time to time. The philosophy can suffice for successful firms in stable environments. That is, in the absence of a decision to change directions, employees of well-managed firms look for ways to improve the work they do. They are usually aware of ways to improve the work by spending more money. The challenge of strategic management is to find ways to improve the work while spending less money, or the least amount of money. Meeting that challenge, however, requires a strategy.
Divestiture, when a firm sells part of itself but remains viable, is practical only when facts show that a buyer will pay an attractive price for the part of the firm that is divested. Absent a buyer, divestiture is hope, not strategy.
Partnership, where a firm joint ventures or contracts with another, is similar to divestiture in that it requires the cooperation of another firm. If the facts do not show that another firm is a willing, able, and ready partner, partnering also is hope, not strategy.