Avoidance learning Refers to seeking to avoid an unpleasant condition or outcome by following a desired behavior.
Behavior modification The use of operant conditioning principles to shape human behavior to conform to desired standards defined by superiors.
Behavioral criteria Defining what constitutes acceptable behavior in terms that employees can understand in objective, measurable terms.
Behavioral dilemmas The process of getting people to substitute what have been called low-probability behaviors for high-probability behaviors.
Behavioral self-management The use of operant conditioning principles to shape your own behavior to conform to desired standards defined by superiors.
Classical conditioning The process whereby a stimulus-response bond is developed between a conditioned stimulus and a conditioned response through the repeated linking of a conditioned stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus.
Conditioned response The process of conditioning through the repeated linking of a conditioned stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus.
Continuous reinforcement Rewards desired behavior every time it occurs.
Drive An internal state of disequilibrium; it is a felt need. It is generally believed that drive increases with the strength of deprivation.
Extinction The principle that suggests that undesired behavior will decline as a result of a lack of positive reinforcement.
Habit The experienced bond or connection between stimulus and response.
Law of effect States that of several responses made to the same situation, those that are accompanied or closely followed by satisfaction (reinforcement) will be more likely to occur; those that are accompanied or closely followed by discomfort (punishment) will be less likely to occur.
Operant conditioning Measures the effects of reinforcements, or rewards, on desired behaviors.
Partial reinforcement Rewards desired behavior at specific intervals, not every time desired behavior is exhibited.
Performance audit Aims to identify discrepancies between what management sees as desired or acceptable behavior and actual behavior.
Positive reinforcement Consists of presenting someone with an attractive outcome following a desired behavior.
Punishment The administration of unpleasant or adverse outcomes as a result of undesired behavior.
Reciprocal determinism This concept implies that people control their own environment as much as the environment controls people.
Reinforcement Anything that causes a certain behavior to be repeated or inhibited.
Self-regulation The belief that individuals are capable of self-control if they want to change their behavior.
Self-reinforcement The stage in Kanfer’s model where, by evaluating the situation and taking corrective action if necessary, one would assure themselves that the disruptive influence had passed and everything was now fine.
Self-talk The process of convincing ourselves that the desired outcome is indeed possible.
Shaping The process of improving performance incrementally, step by step.
Social learning theory The process of molding behavior through the reciprocal interaction of a person’s cognitions, behavior, and environment.
Symbolic coding When people try to associate verbal or visual stimuli with the problem.
Unconditioned response From classical conditioning, a response to an unconditioned stimulus that is naturally evoked by that stimulus.
Vicarious learning Learning that takes place through the imitation of other role models.