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Glossary

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    54120
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    Glossary Entries
    Word(s) Definition Image Caption Link Source
    360-degree performance appraisal A method to appraise performance by using several sources to measure the employee’s effectiveness.        
    360-degree performance appraisal A method to appraise performance by using several sources to measure the employee’s effectiveness.        
    absconding When an employee decides to leave the organization without resigning and following the normal process.        
    absconding When an employee decides to leave the organization without resigning and following the normal process.        
    Acceptability A possible error in performance evaluation, refers to how well the members of the organization, managers and employees, accept the performance evaluation tool as a valid measure of performance.        
    Acceptability A possible error in performance evaluation, refers to how well the members of the organization, managers and employees, accept the performance evaluation tool as a valid measure of performance.        
    achievement test Measures someone’s current knowledge.        
    achievement test Measures someone’s current knowledge.        
    active listening A type of listening in which we are interested in what the other person has to say and check our understanding with the speaker.        
    active listening A type of listening in which we are interested in what the other person has to say and check our understanding with the speaker.        
    Acute stress A type of stress that occurs in shorter bursts.        
    Acute stress A type of stress that occurs in shorter bursts.        
    Adverse impact Refers to employment practices that may appear to be neutral but have a discriminatory effect on a protected group.        
    Adverse impact Refers to employment practices that may appear to be neutral but have a discriminatory effect on a protected group.        
    Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA) Created in 1967 and enforced by the EEOC, this law prohibits discrimination based on age and covers people who are age forty or older.        
    Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA) Created in 1967 and enforced by the EEOC, this law prohibits discrimination based on age and covers people who are age forty or older.        
    aggressive communicator The style of a person who stands up for his or her rights but possibly violates the rights of others.        
    aggressive communicator The style of a person who stands up for his or her rights but possibly violates the rights of others.        
    analytical communication style A communication style in which a person tends to ask a lot of questions and behave methodically.        
    analytical communication style A communication style in which a person tends to ask a lot of questions and behave methodically.        
    arbitration When an outside person hears both sides of a conflict and makes a specific decision about how things should proceed.        
    arbitration When an outside person hears both sides of a conflict and makes a specific decision about how things should proceed.        
    arbitration A type of ADR in which a third party reviews the case and imposes a resolution.        
    arbitration A type of ADR in which a third party reviews the case and imposes a resolution.        
    arbitrator An impartial third party who is selected by both parties in a grievance and who ultimately makes a binding decision in the situation.        
    arbitrator An impartial third party who is selected by both parties in a grievance and who ultimately makes a binding decision in the situation.        
    assertive communicator Respects the rights of herself and others when communicating.        
    assertive communicator Respects the rights of herself and others when communicating.        
    Asynchronous A web-based training delivery method in which the delivery is self-directed.        
    Asynchronous A web-based training delivery method in which the delivery is self-directed.        
    autocratic style A management style that takes a task-only focus and tends to make most of the decisions for the department.        
    autocratic style A management style that takes a task-only focus and tends to make most of the decisions for the department.        
    Baby boomers Defined by being born during the baby boom, which occurred after World War II during the years between 1946 and 1964.        
    Baby boomers Defined by being born during the baby boom, which occurred after World War II during the years between 1946 and 1964.        
    balance sheet approach Expatriates are offered a similar base salary companywide or region wide and are given an allowance based on specific market conditions in each country.        
    balance sheet approach Expatriates are offered a similar base salary companywide or region wide and are given an allowance based on specific market conditions in each country.        
    base pay The minimum pay an employee receives.        
    base pay The minimum pay an employee receives.        
    behavior description interview A type of interview in which the candidate is asked questions about what he or she actually did in a variety of given situations.        
    behavior description interview A type of interview in which the candidate is asked questions about what he or she actually did in a variety of given situations.        
    biculturalism A phase of expatriate adjustment; the expatriate embraces the new culture and begins to appreciate his old life at home as much as his new life overseas. Many of the problems associated with expatriate failures, such as family life and cultural stress, have diminished.        
    biculturalism A phase of expatriate adjustment; the expatriate embraces the new culture and begins to appreciate his old life at home as much as his new life overseas. Many of the problems associated with expatriate failures, such as family life and cultural stress, have diminished.        
    bidding systems A system or a process in which job advertisements may be posted internally through a predetermined method so all employees have access to them.        
    bidding systems A system or a process in which job advertisements may be posted internally through a predetermined method so all employees have access to them.        
    bona fide occupational qualification (BFOQ) A quality or attribute employers are allowed to consider when making decisions during the selection process.        
    bona fide occupational qualification (BFOQ) A quality or attribute employers are allowed to consider when making decisions during the selection process.        
    bona fide occupational qualification (BFOQ) A quality or attribute employers are allowed to consider when making decisions during the selection process.        
    bona fide occupational qualification (BFOQ) A quality or attribute employers are allowed to consider when making decisions during the selection process.        
    brown bag lunch training Training occurs during lunchtime, employees bring their lunch, and someone presents training information to them.        
    brown bag lunch training Training occurs during lunchtime, employees bring their lunch, and someone presents training information to them.        
    Cafeteria plans A type of benefits plan that gives all employees a minimum level of benefits and a set amount the employee can spend on flexible benefits, such as additional health care or vacation time.        
    Cafeteria plans A type of benefits plan that gives all employees a minimum level of benefits and a set amount the employee can spend on flexible benefits, such as additional health care or vacation time.        
    capital Capital includes cash, valuables, or goods used to generate income for a business.        
    capital Capital includes cash, valuables, or goods used to generate income for a business.        
    career development program A process developed to help people manage their career, learn new things, and take steps to improve personally and professionally.        
    career development program A process developed to help people manage their career, learn new things, and take steps to improve personally and professionally.        
    Carpal tunnel syndrome A cumulative disorder of the hand and wrist as a result of too much computer work.        
    Carpal tunnel syndrome A cumulative disorder of the hand and wrist as a result of too much computer work.        
    checklist scale A performance evaluation method in which a series of questions is asked and the manager simply responds yes or no to the questions.        
    checklist scale A performance evaluation method in which a series of questions is asked and the manager simply responds yes or no to the questions.        
    checkoff provision The employer, on behalf of the union, automatically deducts dues from union members’ paychecks.        
    checkoff provision The employer, on behalf of the union, automatically deducts dues from union members’ paychecks.        
    closed shop A type of union agreement in which a person must be a union member to be hired; it was made illegal under the Taft-Hartley Act.        
    closed shop A type of union agreement in which a person must be a union member to be hired; it was made illegal under the Taft-Hartley Act.        
    code of ethics A document that explains the expected ethical behavior of employees.        
    code of ethics A document that explains the expected ethical behavior of employees.        
    codetermination The practice and legal requirement of company shareholders’ and employees’ being represented in equal numbers on the boards of organizations.        
    codetermination The practice and legal requirement of company shareholders’ and employees’ being represented in equal numbers on the boards of organizations.        
    Collective bargaining The process of negotiating an agreement between management and employees.        
    Collective bargaining The process of negotiating an agreement between management and employees.        
    company culture The organization’s way of doing things.        
    company culture The organization’s way of doing things.        
    Comparable worth States that people should be given similar pay if they are performing the same type of job.        
    Comparable worth States that people should be given similar pay if they are performing the same type of job.        
    compensable factors The aspects of a job that are assigned points in a point-factor system.        
    compensable factors The aspects of a job that are assigned points in a point-factor system.        
    Compensation Anything the employee receives for his or her work. It can include pay, benefits, vacation time, and sick leave.        
    Compensation Anything the employee receives for his or her work. It can include pay, benefits, vacation time, and sick leave.        
    compensation package Includes all aspects of how employees are rewarded for their work, such as pay, benefits, bonuses, and 401(k) plans.        
    compensation package Includes all aspects of how employees are rewarded for their work, such as pay, benefits, bonuses, and 401(k) plans.        
    compensatory model A statistical method of scoring applicants, this model permits a high score in an important area to make up for a lower score in another area.        
    compensatory model A statistical method of scoring applicants, this model permits a high score in an important area to make up for a lower score in another area.        
    Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (COBRA) A law enacted in 1985 that requires companies to allow employees to extend their group health-care coverage for up to thirty-six months.        
    Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (COBRA) A law enacted in 1985 that requires companies to allow employees to extend their group health-care coverage for up to thirty-six months.        
    constructive discharge The resignation of an employee due to work conditions so intolerable that he or she had no choice.        
    constructive discharge The resignation of an employee due to work conditions so intolerable that he or she had no choice.        
    continuous scale A scale used in performance evaluations that uses a continuum; the manager puts a mark on the continuum that best represents the employee’s performance.        
    continuous scale A scale used in performance evaluations that uses a continuum; the manager puts a mark on the continuum that best represents the employee’s performance.        
    cost of living annual increases (COLAs), A pay increase not tied to merit but given to employees as an annual inflationary increase.        
    cost of living annual increases (COLAs), A pay increase not tied to merit but given to employees as an annual inflationary increase.        
    critical incident appraisal A performance evaluation method in which the manager is asked to record examples of effective behavior and ineffective behavior of the employee during the time period between evaluations.        
    critical incident appraisal A performance evaluation method in which the manager is asked to record examples of effective behavior and ineffective behavior of the employee during the time period between evaluations.        
    Cumulative trauma disorders (CTDs) Injury to the fingers, hands, arms, or shoulders, which is the result of repetitive motions such as typing.        
    Cumulative trauma disorders (CTDs) Injury to the fingers, hands, arms, or shoulders, which is the result of repetitive motions such as typing.        
    cyberbullying A type of bullying in which Internet or technology is used to send text intended to hurt or embarrass another person.        
    cyberbullying A type of bullying in which Internet or technology is used to send text intended to hurt or embarrass another person.        
    Cyberloafing Using a work computer for personal reasons, resulting in lost productivity.        
    Cyberloafing Using a work computer for personal reasons, resulting in lost productivity.        
    delayering and banding Similar to pay grade levels, but this structure offers more flexibility in that there are fewer pay grades, called bands, which allows for greater flexibility.        
    delayering and banding Similar to pay grade levels, but this structure offers more flexibility in that there are fewer pay grades, called bands, which allows for greater flexibility.        
    diagonal communication Interdepartmental communication occurring at various levels of the organization.        
    diagonal communication Interdepartmental communication occurring at various levels of the organization.        
    directing management style A management style in which the manager tends to direct rather than allow for feedback.        
    directing management style A management style in which the manager tends to direct rather than allow for feedback.        
    Disability insurance A type of insurance that provides income to individuals (usually a portion of their salary) should they be injured or need long-term or short-term care resulting from an illness.        
    Disability insurance A type of insurance that provides income to individuals (usually a portion of their salary) should they be injured or need long-term or short-term care resulting from an illness.        
    Discipline The process that corrects undesirable behavior.        
    Discipline The process that corrects undesirable behavior.        
    Disparate impact When an organization discriminates through the use of a process, affecting a protected group as a whole, rather than consciously intending to discriminate.        
    Disparate impact When an organization discriminates through the use of a process, affecting a protected group as a whole, rather than consciously intending to discriminate.        
    Disparate treatment When one person is intentionally treated differently than another, not necessarily impacting the larger protected group as a whole, as in disparate impact.        
    Disparate treatment When one person is intentionally treated differently than another, not necessarily impacting the larger protected group as a whole, as in disparate impact.        
    Diversity The real or perceived differences between individuals.        
    Diversity The real or perceived differences between individuals.        
    Downward communication The opposite of upward communication, in that the communication occurs from the upper levels of an organization down to the lower levels of the organization.        
    Downward communication The opposite of upward communication, in that the communication occurs from the upper levels of an organization down to the lower levels of the organization.        
    driver style A communication style in which a person likes to have his or her own way and be decisive.        
    driver style A communication style in which a person likes to have his or her own way and be decisive.        
    Drug-Free Workplace Act of 1988 Requires that some federal contractors and all federal grantees agree they will provide a drug-free workplace as a condition of obtaining a contract.        
    Drug-Free Workplace Act of 1988 Requires that some federal contractors and all federal grantees agree they will provide a drug-free workplace as a condition of obtaining a contract.        
    Emotional intelligence The ability to know and manage our emotions, motivate ourselves, understand others’ emotions, and manage relationships.        
    Emotional intelligence The ability to know and manage our emotions, motivate ourselves, understand others’ emotions, and manage relationships.        
    employee assistance program (EAP) A benefit intended to help employees with personal problems that could affect their performance at work.        
    employee assistance program (EAP) A benefit intended to help employees with personal problems that could affect their performance at work.        
    Employee empowerment A way to involve employees in their work by allowing them to make decisions and act upon those decisions, with the support of the organization.        
    Employee empowerment A way to involve employees in their work by allowing them to make decisions and act upon those decisions, with the support of the organization.        
    Employee orientation The process used for welcoming a new employee into the organization.        
    Employee orientation The process used for welcoming a new employee into the organization.        
    employee referral programs (ERPs) A type of recruitment strategy that involves a planned program to access current employee referrals.        
    employee referral programs (ERPs) A type of recruitment strategy that involves a planned program to access current employee referrals.        
    employee stock ownership plans A type of incentive that gives employees stock (ownership) in the organization.        
    employee stock ownership plans A type of incentive that gives employees stock (ownership) in the organization.        
    Employee training and development The framework used to help employees develop their personal and organizational skills, knowledge, and abilities.        
    Employee training and development The framework used to help employees develop their personal and organizational skills, knowledge, and abilities.        
    employment-at-will principle (EAW) The right of an employer to fire an employee or an employee to leave an organization at any time, without any specific cause.        
    employment-at-will principle (EAW) The right of an employer to fire an employee or an employee to leave an organization at any time, without any specific cause.        
    Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) A federal agency charged with the task of enforcing federal employment discrimination laws.        
    Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) A federal agency charged with the task of enforcing federal employment discrimination laws.        
    Equal Pay Act Passed in 1963, the act makes it illegal to pay different wages to men and women if they perform equal work in the same workplace.        
    Equal Pay Act Passed in 1963, the act makes it illegal to pay different wages to men and women if they perform equal work in the same workplace.        
    equity theory A theory that says people will evaluate their own compensation by comparing their compensation to others’ compensation.        
    equity theory A theory that says people will evaluate their own compensation by comparing their compensation to others’ compensation.        
    essay appraisal A type of performance appraisal in which the source answers a series of questions about the employee’s performance in essay form.        
    essay appraisal A type of performance appraisal in which the source answers a series of questions about the employee’s performance in essay form.        
    Ethics A concept that examines the moral rights and wrongs of certain situations.        
    Ethics A concept that examines the moral rights and wrongs of certain situations.        
    exit interview An interview performed by HR or a manager that seeks information as to what the employee liked at the organization and what they see should be improved.        
    exit interview An interview performed by HR or a manager that seeks information as to what the employee liked at the organization and what they see should be improved.        
    expectancy theory The expectancy theory says that employees will put in as much work as they expect to receive reward for.        
    expectancy theory The expectancy theory says that employees will put in as much work as they expect to receive reward for.        
    expresser communication style A communication style that is easily excitable and relies heavily on hunches and feelings.        
    expresser communication style A communication style that is easily excitable and relies heavily on hunches and feelings.        
    external candidate Someone who works outside the organization.        
    external candidate Someone who works outside the organization.        
    external factors Anything the company has no direct control over; it could positively or negatively impact human resources.        
    external factors Anything the company has no direct control over; it could positively or negatively impact human resources.        
    External training Any type of training that is not performed in-house, such as seminars or conferences.        
    External training Any type of training that is not performed in-house, such as seminars or conferences.        
    Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) This law gives twelve weeks of unpaid leave for childbirth, adoption, or caregiving of sick family members.        
    Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) This law gives twelve weeks of unpaid leave for childbirth, adoption, or caregiving of sick family members.        
    Federal Employees Compensation Act (FECA) Provides federal employees injured in the performance of their jobs compensation benefits, such as disability.        
    Federal Employees Compensation Act (FECA) Provides federal employees injured in the performance of their jobs compensation benefits, such as disability.        
    FLSA A federal law established in 1938 that sets a minimum wage for jobs and other conditions for pay.        
    FLSA A federal law established in 1938 that sets a minimum wage for jobs and other conditions for pay.        
    Foreign tax credits A tax credit in the United States that allows expatriates working abroad to claim taxes paid overseas on their US tax forms, reducing or eliminating double taxation.        
    Foreign tax credits A tax credit in the United States that allows expatriates working abroad to claim taxes paid overseas on their US tax forms, reducing or eliminating double taxation.        
    free-rein style A management style that gives employees freedom to make decisions.        
    free-rein style A management style that gives employees freedom to make decisions.        
    going rate model In this pay model, analysis of the going rate for a particular job is the basis for determining what people within the organization should be paid.        
    going rate model In this pay model, analysis of the going rate for a particular job is the basis for determining what people within the organization should be paid.        
    good faith and fair dealing exception An employment-at-will exception in which the discharged employee contends that he or she was not treated fairly.        
    good faith and fair dealing exception An employment-at-will exception in which the discharged employee contends that he or she was not treated fairly.        
    grievance procedure Outlined in the contract, the process by which contract violations are handled.        
    grievance procedure Outlined in the contract, the process by which contract violations are handled.        
    grievance process A formal process by which employees can submit a complaint regarding something that is not administered correctly in the contract.        
    grievance process A formal process by which employees can submit a complaint regarding something that is not administered correctly in the contract.        
    grouplets A specific teamwork management style approach used by many organizations.        
    grouplets A specific teamwork management style approach used by many organizations.        
    Hay profile method A proprietary job evaluation method that focuses on three factors called know-how, problem solving, and accountability; this method is most applicable to management positions.        
    Hay profile method A proprietary job evaluation method that focuses on three factors called know-how, problem solving, and accountability; this method is most applicable to management positions.        
    head hunter A person who specializes in matching jobs with people and usually works only with high-level positions.        
    head hunter A person who specializes in matching jobs with people and usually works only with high-level positions.        
    high-performance work systems (HPWS) A set of systematic HR practices that create an environment where the employee has greater involvement and responsibility for the success of the organization.        
    high-performance work systems (HPWS) A set of systematic HR practices that create an environment where the employee has greater involvement and responsibility for the success of the organization.        
    Horizontal communication When people at the same level in the organization communicate.        
    Horizontal communication When people at the same level in the organization communicate.        
    host-country national strategy To employ people who were born in the country in which the business is operating.        
    host-country national strategy To employ people who were born in the country in which the business is operating.        
    HR plan Detailed, written plan to ensure the strategic plan is achieved.        
    HR plan Detailed, written plan to ensure the strategic plan is achieved.        
    HR plan Detailed, written plan to ensure the strategic plan is achieved.        
    HR plan Detailed, written plan to ensure the strategic plan is achieved.        
    Human resource management (HRM) The process of employing people, training them, compensating them, developing policies relating to the workplace, and developing strategies to retain employees.        
    Human resource management (HRM) The process of employing people, training them, compensating them, developing policies relating to the workplace, and developing strategies to retain employees.        
    hygiene factors Part of a theory developed by Herzberg that says some things will not necessarily motivate employees but will cause dissatisfaction if not present.        
    hygiene factors Part of a theory developed by Herzberg that says some things will not necessarily motivate employees but will cause dissatisfaction if not present.        
    Hypostress The lack of eustress or distress in someone’s life.        
    Hypostress The lack of eustress or distress in someone’s life.        
    illegal topics A bargaining topic that is illegal in both the bargaining agreement and within society, such as plans to discriminate against a specific group in employment.        
    illegal topics A bargaining topic that is illegal in both the bargaining agreement and within society, such as plans to discriminate against a specific group in employment.        
    Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA) A law adopted by Congress in 1986 that requires employers to attest to their employees’ immigration status.        
    Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA) A law adopted by Congress in 1986 that requires employers to attest to their employees’ immigration status.        
    Improvement plans A document developed by both manager and employee to address any performance deficiencies.        
    Improvement plans A document developed by both manager and employee to address any performance deficiencies.        
    In-house training programs Learning opportunities developed by the organization in which they are used.        
    In-house training programs Learning opportunities developed by the organization in which they are used.        
    indirect turnover costs Includes the loss of production and reduced performance.        
    indirect turnover costs Includes the loss of production and reduced performance.        
    individual assessment A type of needs assessment that looks at the performance of an individual employee and determines what training should be accomplished for that individual.        
    individual assessment A type of needs assessment that looks at the performance of an individual employee and determines what training should be accomplished for that individual.        
    individualism-collectivism One of Hofstede’s cultural dimensions; describes the degree to which individuals are integrated into groups.        
    individualism-collectivism One of Hofstede’s cultural dimensions; describes the degree to which individuals are integrated into groups.        
    interest based bargaining A type of bargaining, mutual interests are brought up and discussed, rather than each party coming to the table with a list of demands.        
    interest based bargaining A type of bargaining, mutual interests are brought up and discussed, rather than each party coming to the table with a list of demands.        
    interest-based bargaining A type of bargaining in which mutual interests are brought up and discussed, rather than each party coming to the table with a list of demands.        
    interest-based bargaining A type of bargaining in which mutual interests are brought up and discussed, rather than each party coming to the table with a list of demands.        
    investigative interview When a discipline procedure takes place, the interview with the employee is used to make sure the employee is fully aware of the discipline issue and allows the employee the opportunity to explain his or her side of the story.        
    investigative interview When a discipline procedure takes place, the interview with the employee is used to make sure the employee is fully aware of the discipline issue and allows the employee the opportunity to explain his or her side of the story.        
    Involuntary turnover Turnover in which the employee has no choice in his or her termination—for example, employer-initiated due to nonperformance.        
    Involuntary turnover Turnover in which the employee has no choice in his or her termination—for example, employer-initiated due to nonperformance.        
    ISO14000 The set of standards for environmental management.        
    ISO14000 The set of standards for environmental management.        
    job analysis A formal system developed to determine the tasks people actually perform in their jobs.        
    job analysis A formal system developed to determine the tasks people actually perform in their jobs.        
    job classification system A job evaluation system in which every job is classified and grouped based on the knowledge and skills required for the job, years of experience, and amount of authority for a particular job.        
    job classification system A job evaluation system in which every job is classified and grouped based on the knowledge and skills required for the job, years of experience, and amount of authority for a particular job.        
    job descriptive index (JDI) A standardized and widely used measure of job satisfaction, measuring five facets of job satisfaction.        
    job descriptive index (JDI) A standardized and widely used measure of job satisfaction, measuring five facets of job satisfaction.        
    Job design Refers to how a job can be modified or changed to be more effective—for example, changing tasks as new technology becomes available.        
    Job design Refers to how a job can be modified or changed to be more effective—for example, changing tasks as new technology becomes available.        
    job enlargement Adding new challenges or responsibilities to a current job.        
    job enlargement Adding new challenges or responsibilities to a current job.        
    Job enrichment Adding more meaningful tasks to enhance a job and make the employee’s work more rewarding.        
    Job enrichment Adding more meaningful tasks to enhance a job and make the employee’s work more rewarding.        
    job knowledge test Measures the candidate’s level of understanding about a particular job.        
    job knowledge test Measures the candidate’s level of understanding about a particular job.        
    job rotation Involves a systematic movement of employees from job to job within an organization.        
    job rotation Involves a systematic movement of employees from job to job within an organization.        
    Job shadowing A training delivery method that places an employee who already has the skills with another employee who wants to develop those skills.        
    Job shadowing A training delivery method that places an employee who already has the skills with another employee who wants to develop those skills.        
    Job specifications The skills and abilities the person must have to perform the job.        
    Job specifications The skills and abilities the person must have to perform the job.        
    Job swapping A method for training in which two employees agree to change jobs for a period of time.        
    Job swapping A method for training in which two employees agree to change jobs for a period of time.        
    KSAOs Knowledge, skills, abilities, and other personal characteristics that make a person successful on the job.        
    KSAOs Knowledge, skills, abilities, and other personal characteristics that make a person successful on the job.        
    labor union A group of workers who band together to meet common goals, such as better pay, benefits, or promotion rules.        
    labor union A group of workers who band together to meet common goals, such as better pay, benefits, or promotion rules.        
    Landrum Griffin Act An act passed in 1959 that is supposed to limit corruption in unions by requiring secret elections and reporting of financial information.        
    Landrum Griffin Act An act passed in 1959 that is supposed to limit corruption in unions by requiring secret elections and reporting of financial information.        
    learning objective Something you want your learners to know after the training.        
    learning objective Something you want your learners to know after the training.        
    localized compensation strategy A international compensation strategy that uses regional or local cost-of-living information to pay employees.        
    localized compensation strategy A international compensation strategy that uses regional or local cost-of-living information to pay employees.        
    long-term–short-term orientation One of Hofstede’s cultural dimensions; refers to the society’s time horizons.        
    long-term–short-term orientation One of Hofstede’s cultural dimensions; refers to the society’s time horizons.        
    Management by objectives (MBOs) A type of performance appraisal in which the manager and employee work together to develop objectives, and at the end of the period the employee is measured on whether he or she met the objectives.        
    Management by objectives (MBOs) A type of performance appraisal in which the manager and employee work together to develop objectives, and at the end of the period the employee is measured on whether he or she met the objectives.        
    management fit model In this model, each manager makes a decision about who much a new hire should be paid.        
    management fit model In this model, each manager makes a decision about who much a new hire should be paid.        
    managerial training The type of training that occurs when someone has been identified as a good manager candidate. Could include soft skills training, technical training, and skills training.        
    managerial training The type of training that occurs when someone has been identified as a good manager candidate. Could include soft skills training, technical training, and skills training.        
    market compensation policy A compensation policy that pays similar to what the market offers.        
    market compensation policy A compensation policy that pays similar to what the market offers.        
    market minus philosophy A compensation policy that determines the going rate and subtracts a particular percentage, so pay is less than the market.        
    market minus philosophy A compensation policy that determines the going rate and subtracts a particular percentage, so pay is less than the market.        
    market plus philosophy A compensation policy that determines the going rate and adds a percentage to the market rate, so pay is higher than the market.        
    market plus philosophy A compensation policy that determines the going rate and adds a percentage to the market rate, so pay is higher than the market.        
    Masculinity and femininity One of Hofstede’s cultural dimensions; refers to the distribution of emotional roles between genders, and which gender norms are accepted by society.        
    Masculinity and femininity One of Hofstede’s cultural dimensions; refers to the distribution of emotional roles between genders, and which gender norms are accepted by society.        
    material culture The items a culture holds important, such as artwork, technology, and architecture.        
    material culture The items a culture holds important, such as artwork, technology, and architecture.        
    material data safety sheets Information made available that describes to the local fire departments and state and local officials the types of chemicals manufactured, used, or stored. Also includes information on how to properly handle the materials and how to administer first aid in case of an accident.        
    material data safety sheets Information made available that describes to the local fire departments and state and local officials the types of chemicals manufactured, used, or stored. Also includes information on how to properly handle the materials and how to administer first aid in case of an accident.        
    mediator An impartial third party called in to help resolve a grievance. Any recommendation or decision is not binding.        
    mediator An impartial third party called in to help resolve a grievance. Any recommendation or decision is not binding.        
    mentor A trusted and experienced advisor who has direct investment in the development of an employee.        
    mentor A trusted and experienced advisor who has direct investment in the development of an employee.        
    Mentoring A process by which an employee can be trained and developed, through use of an experienced person.        
    Mentoring A process by which an employee can be trained and developed, through use of an experienced person.        
    mixed standard scale Similar to a graphic rating scale, this scale includes a series of mixed statements representing excellent, average, and poor performance, and the manager is asked to rate a “+” (performance is better than stated), “0” (performance is at stated level), or “−” (performance is below stated level).        
    mixed standard scale Similar to a graphic rating scale, this scale includes a series of mixed statements representing excellent, average, and poor performance, and the manager is asked to rate a “+” (performance is better than stated), “0” (performance is at stated level), or “−” (performance is below stated level).        
    motivation factors Part of a theory developed by Herzberg that says some things will motivate an employee, such as being given responsibility.        
    motivation factors Part of a theory developed by Herzberg that says some things will motivate an employee, such as being given responsibility.        
    Multiculturalism Looks at power and privilege differences in society.        
    Multiculturalism Looks at power and privilege differences in society.        
    multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) or environmental illness (EI) The inability to tolerate an environmental chemical or class of foreign chemicals.        
    multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) or environmental illness (EI) The inability to tolerate an environmental chemical or class of foreign chemicals.        
    multiple hurdle model A statistical method of scoring applicants that allows only candidates with high (preset) scores to go to the next stages of the selection process.        
    multiple hurdle model A statistical method of scoring applicants that allows only candidates with high (preset) scores to go to the next stages of the selection process.        
    multitask The ability to work on more than one task at a time.        
    multitask The ability to work on more than one task at a time.        
    National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) The organization that oversees and enforces the Wagner and Taft-Hartley acts. It handles unfair labor practice complaints and facilitates unionization efforts.        
    National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) The organization that oversees and enforces the Wagner and Taft-Hartley acts. It handles unfair labor practice complaints and facilitates unionization efforts.        
    Nepotism A preference for hiring relatives of current employees.        
    Nepotism A preference for hiring relatives of current employees.        
    Nonverbal language A type of communication that can include facial expressions and eye contact.        
    Nonverbal language A type of communication that can include facial expressions and eye contact.        
    OASDHI A federally mandated retirement program that stands for Old Age, Survivors, Disability, and Health Insurance Program and includes Social Security and Medicare.        
    OASDHI A federally mandated retirement program that stands for Old Age, Survivors, Disability, and Health Insurance Program and includes Social Security and Medicare.        
    Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA) Passed in 1970, this act created the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, which oversees health and safety in the workplace.        
    Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA) Passed in 1970, this act created the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, which oversees health and safety in the workplace.        
    Occupational Safety and Health Administration The main federal agency charged with enforcement of safety and health regulation in the United States.        
    Occupational Safety and Health Administration The main federal agency charged with enforcement of safety and health regulation in the United States.        
    Offshoring Moving jobs overseas to contain costs.        
    Offshoring Moving jobs overseas to contain costs.        
    ombudsman system A system in which a person is selected (or elected) to be the designated individual for employees to go to should they have a complaint or an issue with a discipline procedure.        
    ombudsman system A system in which a person is selected (or elected) to be the designated individual for employees to go to should they have a complaint or an issue with a discipline procedure.        
    On-the-job coaching Refers to the training of an employee by an approved person to learn the skills necessary to complete the tasks.        
    On-the-job coaching Refers to the training of an employee by an approved person to learn the skills necessary to complete the tasks.        
    organizational life cycle Refers to the introduction, growth, maturity, and decline of the organization, which can vary over time. A different HRM strategy is needed, depending on the organizational life cycle the company is experiencing.        
    organizational life cycle Refers to the introduction, growth, maturity, and decline of the organization, which can vary over time. A different HRM strategy is needed, depending on the organizational life cycle the company is experiencing.        
    Outsourcing Contracting with another company (onshore or offshore) to perform some business-related task.        
    Outsourcing Contracting with another company (onshore or offshore) to perform some business-related task.        
    overseas premium An extra amount paid to an expatriate for accepting an overseas assignment.        
    overseas premium An extra amount paid to an expatriate for accepting an overseas assignment.        
    paired comparison Individual jobs are compared with every other job, based on a ranking system, and an overall score is given for each job, determining the highest valued job for pay decisions.        
    paired comparison Individual jobs are compared with every other job, based on a ranking system, and an overall score is given for each job, determining the highest valued job for pay decisions.        
    participative style A management style that seeks input from employees.        
    participative style A management style that seeks input from employees.        
    passive communicator A communication style in which a person puts the rights of others over his or her own.        
    passive communicator A communication style in which a person puts the rights of others over his or her own.        
    Patriot Act Signed in response to the September 11, 2001, attacks, the Patriot Act introduced legislative changes to enhance the federal government’s ability to conduct domestic and international investigations and surveillance activities.        
    Patriot Act Signed in response to the September 11, 2001, attacks, the Patriot Act introduced legislative changes to enhance the federal government’s ability to conduct domestic and international investigations and surveillance activities.        
    pay grade levels A compensation model that looks at all jobs within the organization and assigns each job a pay level or pay grade.        
    pay grade levels A compensation model that looks at all jobs within the organization and assigns each job a pay level or pay grade.        
    pay grading The process of setting the pay scale for specific jobs.        
    pay grading The process of setting the pay scale for specific jobs.        
    Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation (PBGC) A US government agency created by the Employee Retirement Income Security Act (ERISA) to protect pension benefits in private sector pension plans.        
    Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation (PBGC) A US government agency created by the Employee Retirement Income Security Act (ERISA) to protect pension benefits in private sector pension plans.        
    people-oriented A management style mostly concerned with the interpersonal relationships within the organization.        
    people-oriented A management style mostly concerned with the interpersonal relationships within the organization.        
    performance appraisal A method by which job performance is measured.        
    performance appraisal A method by which job performance is measured.        
    performance appraisal A method by which job performance is measured.        
    performance appraisal A method by which job performance is measured.        
    performance evaluation system A systematic way to examine how well an employee is performing in his or her job.        
    performance evaluation system A systematic way to examine how well an employee is performing in his or her job.        
    power and privilege A system of advantages based on race, gender, sexual orientation, and other components of diversity.        
    power and privilege A system of advantages based on race, gender, sexual orientation, and other components of diversity.        
    Power distance One of Hofstede’s cultural dimensions; refers to the extent to which the less powerful members of organizations accept that power is not distributed equally.        
    Power distance One of Hofstede’s cultural dimensions; refers to the extent to which the less powerful members of organizations accept that power is not distributed equally.        
    problem-solving interview A type of performance appraisal interview in which the employee and the manager discuss the things that are going well and the things that are not, which can make for a more productive discussion.        
    problem-solving interview A type of performance appraisal interview in which the employee and the manager discuss the things that are going well and the things that are not, which can make for a more productive discussion.        
    procedural justice The process used to determine the outcomes received.        
    procedural justice The process used to determine the outcomes received.        
    Professional training A type of training that keeps an employee up to date in one’s professional field.        
    Professional training A type of training that keeps an employee up to date in one’s professional field.        
    progressive discipline process Refers to a series of steps taking corrective action on nonperformance issues.        
    progressive discipline process Refers to a series of steps taking corrective action on nonperformance issues.        
    Railway Labor Act (RLA) Passed in 1926, the act applies to railroads and airlines. The goal of the act is to ensure no disruption of interstate commerce.        
    Railway Labor Act (RLA) Passed in 1926, the act applies to railroads and airlines. The goal of the act is to ensure no disruption of interstate commerce.        
    ranking method system Employees in a particular department are ranked based on their value to the manager or supervisor, which is used as a performance evaluation method.        
    ranking method system Employees in a particular department are ranked based on their value to the manager or supervisor, which is used as a performance evaluation method.        
    rating The type of scale that will be used to rate each criterion in a performance evaluation.        
    rating The type of scale that will be used to rate each criterion in a performance evaluation.        
    reasonable accommodation A change in the work environment or the way things are customarily done that enables an individual with a disability to enjoy equal employment opportunities.        
    reasonable accommodation A change in the work environment or the way things are customarily done that enables an individual with a disability to enjoy equal employment opportunities.        
    recency bias Interview bias that occurs when the interviewer remembers candidates interviewed most recently more so than the other candidates.        
    recency bias Interview bias that occurs when the interviewer remembers candidates interviewed most recently more so than the other candidates.        
    Recruitment A process that provides the organization with a pool of qualified job candidates from which to choose.        
    Recruitment A process that provides the organization with a pool of qualified job candidates from which to choose.        
    reinforcement theory A theory that says that if high performance is followed by some reward, then it is more likely that the desired behavior will occur in the future.        
    reinforcement theory A theory that says that if high performance is followed by some reward, then it is more likely that the desired behavior will occur in the future.        
    relater style A communication style by someone who prefers to be warmly regarded and have positive attention.        
    relater style A communication style by someone who prefers to be warmly regarded and have positive attention.        
    Reliability The degree in which selection techniques yield similar data over time.        
    Reliability The degree in which selection techniques yield similar data over time.        
    Resignation When an employee chooses to leave the organization.        
    Resignation When an employee chooses to leave the organization.        
    Results methods A category of performance evaluation in which managers are focused on the accomplishments of the employee, such as whether or not they met a quota.        
    Results methods A category of performance evaluation in which managers are focused on the accomplishments of the employee, such as whether or not they met a quota.        
    Retaliatory discharge Punishment of an employee for engaging in a protected activity, such as filing a discrimination charge or opposing illegal employer practices.        
    Retaliatory discharge Punishment of an employee for engaging in a protected activity, such as filing a discrimination charge or opposing illegal employer practices.        
    Retention The process and strategies of keeping and motivating employees to stay with the organization.        
    Retention The process and strategies of keeping and motivating employees to stay with the organization.        
    Retention plans A plan that outlines the strategies the organization will use to reduce turnover and address employee motivation.        
    Retention plans A plan that outlines the strategies the organization will use to reduce turnover and address employee motivation.        
    reverse culture shock Refers to the psychological phenomenon that can lead to feelings of fear, helplessness, irritability, and disorientation when an expatriate returns home.        
    reverse culture shock Refers to the psychological phenomenon that can lead to feelings of fear, helplessness, irritability, and disorientation when an expatriate returns home.        
    Rightsizing Refers to the process of reducing the total size of employees, to ultimately save on costs.        
    Rightsizing Refers to the process of reducing the total size of employees, to ultimately save on costs.        
    Safety training Training employees so they are protected from injuries caused by work-related accidents.        
    Safety training Training employees so they are protected from injuries caused by work-related accidents.        
    secondary actions Made illegal by the Taft-Hartley Act, which disallowed a union from going on strike in sympathy for another union.        
    secondary actions Made illegal by the Taft-Hartley Act, which disallowed a union from going on strike in sympathy for another union.        
    selection process The steps involved in choosing people who have the right qualifications to fill a current or future job opening.        
    selection process The steps involved in choosing people who have the right qualifications to fill a current or future job opening.        
    severance package Includes pay, benefits, or other compensation to which employees are entitled upon leavingthe organization.        
    severance package Includes pay, benefits, or other compensation to which employees are entitled upon leavingthe organization.        
    situational leadership model A method of viewing the application of management styles, as developed by Ken Blanchard.        
    situational leadership model A method of viewing the application of management styles, as developed by Ken Blanchard.        
    Skills training Includes training on proficiencies needed to actually perform the job.        
    Skills training Includes training on proficiencies needed to actually perform the job.        
    Soft skills Personality traits, social graces, communication, and personal habits that are used to characterize relationships with other people.        
    Soft skills Personality traits, social graces, communication, and personal habits that are used to characterize relationships with other people.        
    span of control The number of employees each manager manages.        
    span of control The number of employees each manager manages.        
    specificity A possible error in performance evaluations that tells employees the job expectations and how the expectations can be met.        
    specificity A possible error in performance evaluations that tells employees the job expectations and how the expectations can be met.        
    Staffing The entire hiring process from the first step of posting a job to the actual hiring of an employee.        
    Staffing The entire hiring process from the first step of posting a job to the actual hiring of an employee.        
    staffing plan A detailed document that synthesizes information to determine how many people should be hired, when they should be hired, and what skills they should have.        
    staffing plan A detailed document that synthesizes information to determine how many people should be hired, when they should be hired, and what skills they should have.        
    statistical method A selection method in which a selection model is developed that assigns scores and weights on various factors, such as personality, answers to interview questions, and test scores.        
    statistical method A selection method in which a selection model is developed that assigns scores and weights on various factors, such as personality, answers to interview questions, and test scores.        
    stressor Some activity, event, or other stimulus that causes either a positive or a negative response in the body.        
    stressor Some activity, event, or other stimulus that causes either a positive or a negative response in the body.        
    structured interview A type of interview with a set of standardized questions based on the job analysis, not on the individual candidate’s résumé.        
    structured interview A type of interview with a set of standardized questions based on the job analysis, not on the individual candidate’s résumé.        
    Succession planning A process for identifying and developing internal people who have the potential to fill positions.        
    Succession planning A process for identifying and developing internal people who have the potential to fill positions.        
    Sympathy strikes Work stoppages by other unions designed to show support for the union on strike.        
    Sympathy strikes Work stoppages by other unions designed to show support for the union on strike.        
    task-oriented style A management style that tends to focus on the details of what must get done.        
    task-oriented style A management style that tends to focus on the details of what must get done.        
    team training A process that empowers teams to improve decision making, problem solving, and team-development skills to achieve business results.        
    team training A process that empowers teams to improve decision making, problem solving, and team-development skills to achieve business results.        
    Technical training A type of training meant to teach new employees the technological aspects of their job.        
    Technical training A type of training meant to teach new employees the technological aspects of their job.        
    telecommuting Allows employees to work from home or a remote location for a specified period of time, such as one day per week.        
    telecommuting Allows employees to work from home or a remote location for a specified period of time, such as one day per week.        
    Theory X managers According to McGregor, a type of manager who has a negative approach to employee motivation.        
    Theory X managers According to McGregor, a type of manager who has a negative approach to employee motivation.        
    Theory Y managers According to McGregor, a type of manager who has a positive approach to employee motivation.        
    Theory Y managers According to McGregor, a type of manager who has a positive approach to employee motivation.        
    trade agreement An agreement between two or more countries to reduce barriers to trade.        
    trade agreement An agreement between two or more countries to reduce barriers to trade.        
    transnational A complex organization with a corporate office, but unlike international, global, and multinational companies, much of the decision making, research and development, and marketing is left up to the individual foreign market.        
    transnational A complex organization with a corporate office, but unlike international, global, and multinational companies, much of the decision making, research and development, and marketing is left up to the individual foreign market.        
    transnational process Refers to the extent to which ideas that contribute to the organization come from a variety of perspectives and ideas from all countries in which the organization operates.        
    transnational process Refers to the extent to which ideas that contribute to the organization come from a variety of perspectives and ideas from all countries in which the organization operates.        
    turnover Replacement of employees who are fired or quit. The term is normally expressed as a percentage: the ratio of the number of workers who had to be replaced in a given period to the average number of workers at the organization.        
    turnover Replacement of employees who are fired or quit. The term is normally expressed as a percentage: the ratio of the number of workers who had to be replaced in a given period to the average number of workers at the organization.        
    turnover Replacement of employees who are fired or quit. The term is normally expressed as a percentage: the ratio of the number of workers who had to be replaced in a given period to the average number of workers at the organization.        
    turnover Replacement of employees who are fired or quit. The term is normally expressed as a percentage: the ratio of the number of workers who had to be replaced in a given period to the average number of workers at the organization.        
    Uncertainty avoidance One of Hofstede’s cultural dimensions; refers to how a society tolerates uncertainty.        
    Uncertainty avoidance One of Hofstede’s cultural dimensions; refers to how a society tolerates uncertainty.        
    union An organization of employees formed to bargain with an employer.        
    union An organization of employees formed to bargain with an employer.        
    union or policy grievance A grievance initiated by the union if an employee or group is not willing to formally file a grievance.        
    union or policy grievance A grievance initiated by the union if an employee or group is not willing to formally file a grievance.        
    union salting A union strategy that encourages union supporters to apply for jobs in nonunion environments to actively work to unionize other employees when they are hired.        
    union salting A union strategy that encourages union supporters to apply for jobs in nonunion environments to actively work to unionize other employees when they are hired.        
    union steward An elected person with the organization who represents the interests of union members.        
    union steward An elected person with the organization who represents the interests of union members.        
    Upward communication When the lower levels of an organization communicate with the upper levels of an organization.        
    Upward communication When the lower levels of an organization communicate with the upper levels of an organization.        
    validity How useful a tool is to measure a person’s attributes for a specific job opening.        
    validity How useful a tool is to measure a person’s attributes for a specific job opening.        
    vestibule training Training is performed near-site in conference rooms, lecture rooms, and classrooms.        
    vestibule training Training is performed near-site in conference rooms, lecture rooms, and classrooms.        
    vesting period For 401(k) plans, a certain time period before the employer will match the employee funds contributed.        
    vesting period For 401(k) plans, a certain time period before the employer will match the employee funds contributed.        
    virtual organizations An organization that does not have a physical office; rather, employees use technology and do their job from home or the location of their choice.        
    virtual organizations An organization that does not have a physical office; rather, employees use technology and do their job from home or the location of their choice.        
    visa Permission from the host country to visit, live, or work in that country.        
    visa Permission from the host country to visit, live, or work in that country.        
    Visa Waiver Program (VWP) Allows some nationals of thirty-six participating countries to travel to the United States for stays of less than ninety days.        
    Visa Waiver Program (VWP) Allows some nationals of thirty-six participating countries to travel to the United States for stays of less than ninety days.        
    Wagner Act A law passed in 1935 that changed the way employers can react to several aspects of unions and unionization.        
    Wagner Act A law passed in 1935 that changed the way employers can react to several aspects of unions and unionization.        
    weighted application form Involves selecting an employee characteristic to be measured and then identifying which questions on the application predict the desired behavior. Then scores are assigned to each predictor.        
    weighted application form Involves selecting an employee characteristic to be measured and then identifying which questions on the application predict the desired behavior. Then scores are assigned to each predictor.        
    Whistleblowing The practice of an employee’s telling the public about ethical or legal violations of his or her organization.        
    Whistleblowing The practice of an employee’s telling the public about ethical or legal violations of his or her organization.        
    Work sample tests An employment test that asks candidates to show examples of work they have already done.        
    Work sample tests An employment test that asks candidates to show examples of work they have already done.        
    work standards approach A performance evaluation method in which a minimum level of expectation is set and the employee’s performance evaluation is based on this minimum level of productivity.        
    work standards approach A performance evaluation method in which a minimum level of expectation is set and the employee’s performance evaluation is based on this minimum level of productivity.        
    Worker Adjustment and Retraining Notification Act (WARN) Requires organizations with more than one hundred employees to give employees and their communities at least sixty days’ notice of closure or layoff that affects fifty or more full-time employees.        
    Worker Adjustment and Retraining Notification Act (WARN) Requires organizations with more than one hundred employees to give employees and their communities at least sixty days’ notice of closure or layoff that affects fifty or more full-time employees.        
    Workplace bullying A tendency of individuals or groups to use persistent or repeated aggressive or unreasonable behavior against a coworker or subordinate.        
    Workplace bullying A tendency of individuals or groups to use persistent or repeated aggressive or unreasonable behavior against a coworker or subordinate.        
    wrongful discharge Discharge as a result of discrimination, an implied contract between the employee and employer, violation of public policy, or lack of good faith if there is a lack of good faith and fair dealing in the firing.        
    wrongful discharge Discharge as a result of discrimination, an implied contract between the employee and employer, violation of public policy, or lack of good faith if there is a lack of good faith and fair dealing in the firing.        
    Wrongful termination When an employer has fired or laid off an employee for illegal reasons, such as violation of antidiscrimination laws or violation of oral and/or written employee agreements.        
    Wrongful termination When an employer has fired or laid off an employee for illegal reasons, such as violation of antidiscrimination laws or violation of oral and/or written employee agreements.        
    yellow-dog contracts Before the Norris-LaGuardia Act, contracts in which a worker agreed to not join a union before accepting a job.        
    yellow-dog contracts Before the Norris-LaGuardia Act, contracts in which a worker agreed to not join a union before accepting a job.        
    yield ratio The percentage of applicants from one source who make it to the next stage in the selection process.        
    yield ratio The percentage of applicants from one source who make it to the next stage in the selection process.        
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