Skip to main content
Business LibreTexts


  • Page ID
  • \( \newcommand{\vecs}[1]{\overset { \scriptstyle \rightharpoonup} {\mathbf{#1}} } \)

    \( \newcommand{\vecd}[1]{\overset{-\!-\!\rightharpoonup}{\vphantom{a}\smash {#1}}} \)

    \( \newcommand{\id}{\mathrm{id}}\) \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\)

    ( \newcommand{\kernel}{\mathrm{null}\,}\) \( \newcommand{\range}{\mathrm{range}\,}\)

    \( \newcommand{\RealPart}{\mathrm{Re}}\) \( \newcommand{\ImaginaryPart}{\mathrm{Im}}\)

    \( \newcommand{\Argument}{\mathrm{Arg}}\) \( \newcommand{\norm}[1]{\| #1 \|}\)

    \( \newcommand{\inner}[2]{\langle #1, #2 \rangle}\)

    \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\)

    \( \newcommand{\id}{\mathrm{id}}\)

    \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\)

    \( \newcommand{\kernel}{\mathrm{null}\,}\)

    \( \newcommand{\range}{\mathrm{range}\,}\)

    \( \newcommand{\RealPart}{\mathrm{Re}}\)

    \( \newcommand{\ImaginaryPart}{\mathrm{Im}}\)

    \( \newcommand{\Argument}{\mathrm{Arg}}\)

    \( \newcommand{\norm}[1]{\| #1 \|}\)

    \( \newcommand{\inner}[2]{\langle #1, #2 \rangle}\)

    \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\) \( \newcommand{\AA}{\unicode[.8,0]{x212B}}\)

    \( \newcommand{\vectorA}[1]{\vec{#1}}      % arrow\)

    \( \newcommand{\vectorAt}[1]{\vec{\text{#1}}}      % arrow\)

    \( \newcommand{\vectorB}[1]{\overset { \scriptstyle \rightharpoonup} {\mathbf{#1}} } \)

    \( \newcommand{\vectorC}[1]{\textbf{#1}} \)

    \( \newcommand{\vectorD}[1]{\overrightarrow{#1}} \)

    \( \newcommand{\vectorDt}[1]{\overrightarrow{\text{#1}}} \)

    \( \newcommand{\vectE}[1]{\overset{-\!-\!\rightharpoonup}{\vphantom{a}\smash{\mathbf {#1}}}} \)

    \( \newcommand{\vecs}[1]{\overset { \scriptstyle \rightharpoonup} {\mathbf{#1}} } \)

    \( \newcommand{\vecd}[1]{\overset{-\!-\!\rightharpoonup}{\vphantom{a}\smash {#1}}} \)

    \(\newcommand{\avec}{\mathbf a}\) \(\newcommand{\bvec}{\mathbf b}\) \(\newcommand{\cvec}{\mathbf c}\) \(\newcommand{\dvec}{\mathbf d}\) \(\newcommand{\dtil}{\widetilde{\mathbf d}}\) \(\newcommand{\evec}{\mathbf e}\) \(\newcommand{\fvec}{\mathbf f}\) \(\newcommand{\nvec}{\mathbf n}\) \(\newcommand{\pvec}{\mathbf p}\) \(\newcommand{\qvec}{\mathbf q}\) \(\newcommand{\svec}{\mathbf s}\) \(\newcommand{\tvec}{\mathbf t}\) \(\newcommand{\uvec}{\mathbf u}\) \(\newcommand{\vvec}{\mathbf v}\) \(\newcommand{\wvec}{\mathbf w}\) \(\newcommand{\xvec}{\mathbf x}\) \(\newcommand{\yvec}{\mathbf y}\) \(\newcommand{\zvec}{\mathbf z}\) \(\newcommand{\rvec}{\mathbf r}\) \(\newcommand{\mvec}{\mathbf m}\) \(\newcommand{\zerovec}{\mathbf 0}\) \(\newcommand{\onevec}{\mathbf 1}\) \(\newcommand{\real}{\mathbb R}\) \(\newcommand{\twovec}[2]{\left[\begin{array}{r}#1 \\ #2 \end{array}\right]}\) \(\newcommand{\ctwovec}[2]{\left[\begin{array}{c}#1 \\ #2 \end{array}\right]}\) \(\newcommand{\threevec}[3]{\left[\begin{array}{r}#1 \\ #2 \\ #3 \end{array}\right]}\) \(\newcommand{\cthreevec}[3]{\left[\begin{array}{c}#1 \\ #2 \\ #3 \end{array}\right]}\) \(\newcommand{\fourvec}[4]{\left[\begin{array}{r}#1 \\ #2 \\ #3 \\ #4 \end{array}\right]}\) \(\newcommand{\cfourvec}[4]{\left[\begin{array}{c}#1 \\ #2 \\ #3 \\ #4 \end{array}\right]}\) \(\newcommand{\fivevec}[5]{\left[\begin{array}{r}#1 \\ #2 \\ #3 \\ #4 \\ #5 \\ \end{array}\right]}\) \(\newcommand{\cfivevec}[5]{\left[\begin{array}{c}#1 \\ #2 \\ #3 \\ #4 \\ #5 \\ \end{array}\right]}\) \(\newcommand{\mattwo}[4]{\left[\begin{array}{rr}#1 \amp #2 \\ #3 \amp #4 \\ \end{array}\right]}\) \(\newcommand{\laspan}[1]{\text{Span}\{#1\}}\) \(\newcommand{\bcal}{\cal B}\) \(\newcommand{\ccal}{\cal C}\) \(\newcommand{\scal}{\cal S}\) \(\newcommand{\wcal}{\cal W}\) \(\newcommand{\ecal}{\cal E}\) \(\newcommand{\coords}[2]{\left\{#1\right\}_{#2}}\) \(\newcommand{\gray}[1]{\color{gray}{#1}}\) \(\newcommand{\lgray}[1]{\color{lightgray}{#1}}\) \(\newcommand{\rank}{\operatorname{rank}}\) \(\newcommand{\row}{\text{Row}}\) \(\newcommand{\col}{\text{Col}}\) \(\renewcommand{\row}{\text{Row}}\) \(\newcommand{\nul}{\text{Nul}}\) \(\newcommand{\var}{\text{Var}}\) \(\newcommand{\corr}{\text{corr}}\) \(\newcommand{\len}[1]{\left|#1\right|}\) \(\newcommand{\bbar}{\overline{\bvec}}\) \(\newcommand{\bhat}{\widehat{\bvec}}\) \(\newcommand{\bperp}{\bvec^\perp}\) \(\newcommand{\xhat}{\widehat{\xvec}}\) \(\newcommand{\vhat}{\widehat{\vvec}}\) \(\newcommand{\uhat}{\widehat{\uvec}}\) \(\newcommand{\what}{\widehat{\wvec}}\) \(\newcommand{\Sighat}{\widehat{\Sigma}}\) \(\newcommand{\lt}{<}\) \(\newcommand{\gt}{>}\) \(\newcommand{\amp}{&}\) \(\definecolor{fillinmathshade}{gray}{0.9}\)
    Abzug, R., & Webb, N. J. (1999). Relationships between nonprofit and for-profit organizations: A stakeholder perspective. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 28(4), 416-431. doi:10.1177/0899764099284003
    Anderson, R. B., Dana, L. P., & Dana, T. E. (2006). Indigenous land rights, entrepreneurship, and economic development in Canada: “Opting-in” to the global economy. Journal of World Business, 41(1), 45-55.
    Barney, J. B. (1997). Gaining and sustaining competitive advantage. Reading, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley.
    Barney, J. B., & Hesterly, W. S. (2006). Strategic management and competitive advantage: Concepts and cases. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall.
    Baron, R. A. (2004a). The cognitive perspective: A valuable tool for answering entrepreneurship’s basic “why” questions. Journal of Business Venturing, 19(2), 221-239.
    Baron, R. A. (2004b). Opportunity recognition: Insights from a cognitive perspective. In J. E. Butler (Ed.), Opportunity identification and entrepreneurial behavior (pp. 47-73). Greenwich, Conn.: Information Age Pub.
    Baron, R. A., Shane, S. A., & Reuber, A. R. (2008). Entrepreneurship : a process perspective (1st Canadian ed.). Toronto, ON: Thomson/Nelson.
    Birchall, J., & Hammond Ketilson, L. (2009). Resilience of the cooperative business model in times of crisis. Retrieved from Geneva:
    Blackburn, R. (2011). Foreword. In L. P. Dana (Ed.), World Encyclopedia of Entrepreneurship. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing Limited.
    Blank, S. G., & Dorf, B. (2012). The startup owner’s manual: The step-by-step guide for building a great company. Pescadero, California: K&S Ranch.
    Bollier, D. (2002). Commons sense: Community ownership and the displacement of corporate control. Multinational Monitor, 23(7/8), 11.
    Bolton, B., & Thompson, J. L. (2015). The entirepreneur: The all-in-one entrepreneur-leader-manager. New York: Routledge.
    Borch, O. J., Førde, A., Rønning, L., Vestrum, I. K., & Alsos, G. A. (2008). Resource configuration and creative practices of community entrepreneurs. Journal of Enterprising Communities, 2(2), 100-123.
    Boyle, S. (2003). Achieving community ownership: The case of a regional symphony orchestra. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ARTS MANAGEMENT, 6(1), 9-18.
    Brooks, A. C. (2009). Social entrepreneurship: A modern approach to social value creation. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.
    Caliendo, M., Fossen, F., & Kritikos, A. S. (2014). Personality characteristics and the decisions to become and stay self-employed. Small Business Economics, 42(4), 787-814. doi:10.1007/s11187-013-9514-8
    Canada Business Network. (2013). Succession planning. Retrieved from
    Canadian Intellectual Property Office. (2015a). A guide to copyright. Retrieved from
    Canadian Intellectual Property Office. (2015b). A guide to industrial designs. Retrieved from
    Canadian Intellectual Property Office. (2015c). A guide to trademarks. Retrieved from
    Canadian Intellectual Property Office. (2015d). What is a patent? Retrieved from
    Casson, M., & Godley, A. (2005). Entrepreneurship and historical explanation. In Y. Cassis & I. P. Minoglou (Eds.), Entrepreneurship in theory and history (pp. 25-60). New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
    Chaskin, R. J. (2001). Building community capacity: A definitional framework and case studies from a comprehensive community initiative Urban Affairs Review, 36(3), 291-323. doi:10.1177/10780870122184876
    Chatterjee, S. (2013). Simple rules for designing business models. California Management Review, 55(2), 97-124.
    Chell, E. (2008). The entrepreneurial personality: A social construction (2nd ed.). New York: Routledge.
    Christie, M. J., & Honig, B. (2006). Social entrepreneurship: New research findings. Journal of World Business, 41(1), 1-5.
    Chua, J. H., Chrisman, J. J., & Steier, L. P. (2003). Extending the Theoretical Horizons of Family Business Research. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 27(4), 331-338. doi:doi:10.1111/1540-8520.00012
    Cohen, B. (2006). Sustainable valley entrepreneurial ecosystems. Business Strategy and the Environment, 15(1), 1-14. doi:10.1002/bse.428
    Dana, L. P., & Anderson, R. B. (2007). A multidisciplinary theory of entrepreneurship as a function of cultural perceptions of opportunity. In L. P. Dana & R. B. Anderson (Eds.), International handbook of research on indigenous entrepreneurship (pp. 595-603). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.
    Dana, L. P., Etemad, H., & Wright, R. W. (2008). Towards a paradigm of symbiotic entrepreneurship. International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, 5(2), 109-126.
    Davis, P. S., & Harveston, P. D. (1998). The influence of family on the family business succession process: A multi-generational perspective. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 22(3), 3153.
    De Alwis, C. (2012). The new mechanism for performance evaluation of the co-operatives. Paper presented at the Management, Knowledge and Learning International Conference 2012, Celje, Slovenia.
    Dees, J. G. (2001). The meaning of social entrepreneurship. Retrieved from
    Delmar, F., & Shane, S. (2003). Does business planning facilitate the development of new ventures? Strategic Management Journal, 24, 1165-1185.
    Dheensaw, C. (2011). Season ticket will mean ownership share. Retrieved from
    Drucker, P. F. (1985). Innovation and entrepreneurship: Practice and principles. New York, NY: Harper & Row.
    Duening, T. N. (2010). Five minds for the entrepreneurial future: Cognitive skills as the intellectual foundation for next generation entrepreneurship curricula. Journal of Entrepreneurship, 19(1), 1-22. doi:10.1177/097135570901900101
    Dutta, D. K., & Thornhill, S. (2008). The evolution of growth intentions: Toward a cognition-based model. Journal of Business Venturing, 23, 307-322.
    Edmonton Eskimos. (2011). Inside the empire: Eskimo allegiance runs deep. Retrieved from
    Entrepreneur. (n.d.). Retrieved from
    Fayolle, A. (2007). Entrepreneurship and new value creation: The dynamic of the entrepreneurial process. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Gartner, W. B. (1990). What are we talking about when we talk about entrepreneurship? Journal of Business Venturing Journal of Business Venturing, 5(1), 15-28.
    Gates, J. (1999). People-ized ownership patterns: The key to a smarter capitalism. Systems Research and Behavioral Science, 16(5), 437-452.
    Green Bay Packers. (2012). Community: Shareholders. Retrieved from
    GrowthWheel. (2015). Make decisions. Take action. Retrieved from
    Hebert, R. F., & Link, A. N. (2009). A history of entrepreneurship. New York: Routledge.
    Hindle, K. (2007). Formalizing the concept of entrepreneurial capacity Refereed Proceedings of the 2007 ICSB World Conference (pp. CD format precludes sequential pagination). Finland: Turku School of Economics.
    Hindle, K. (2010). How community context affects entrepreneurial process: A diagnostic framework. Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, 22(7-8), 599-647. doi:10.1080/08985626.2010.522057
    Hindle, K., & Mainprize, B. (2006). A systematic approach to writing and rating entrepreneurial business plans. The Journal of Private Equity, 9(3), 7-23.
    IDEO. (2015). About IDEO. Retrieved from
    Intrapreneur. (n.d.). Retrieved from
    Kahneman, D., & Tversky, A. (1977). Prospect theory: An analysis of decision making under risk. Eugene, Oregon: Decision Research.
    Kao, R. W. Y. (1993). Defining entrepreneurship: Past, present and ? Creativity and Innovation Management, 2(1), 69-70.
    Kerins, S., & Jordan, K. (2010). Indigenous economic development through community-based enterprise. Retrieved from Canberra:
    Kneiding, C., & Tracey, P. (2009). Towards a performance measurement framework for community development finance institutions in the UK. Journal of Business Ethics, 86(3), 327-345.
    Kuratko, D. F. (2005). The emergence of entrepreneurship education: development, trends, and challenges. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 29(5), 577-597.
    Leadbeater, C. (1997). The rise of the social entrepreneur. London: Demos.
    Lehman, J. S., & Lento, R. E. (1992). Law school support for community-based economic development in low-income urban neighborhoods. Journal of Urban and Contemporary Law, 42, 65-84.
    Lichtenstein, B. B. (2011). Complexity science contributions to the field of entrepeneurship. In P. Allen, S. Maguire, & B. McKelvey (Eds.), The Sage handbook of complexity and management (pp. 471-493). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.
    Lindsay, N. J. (2005). Toward a cultural model of Indigenous entrepreneurial attitude. Academy of Marketing Science Review, 5, 1-17.
    Lundblad, J. P. (2003). A review and critique of Rogers’ Diffusion of Innovation Theory as it applies to organizations. Organization Development Journal, 21(4), 50-64.
    Magretta, J. (2002). Why business models matter. Harvard Business Review, (May 2002), 86-92.
    Manyara, G., & Jones, E. (2007). Community-based tourism enterprises development in Kenya: An exploration of their potential as avenues of poverty reduction. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 15(6), 628-644. doi:10.2167/jost723.0
    Martiarena, A. (2013). What’s so entrepreneurial about intrapreneurs? Small Business Economics, 40(1), 27-39. doi:10.1007/s11187-011-9348-1
    Martin, R., L., & Osberg, S. (2007). Social entrepreneurship: The case for definition. Stanford Social Innovation Review, 5(2), 28-39.
    Mason, C., & Brown, R. (2014). Entrepreneurial ecosystems and growth oriented entrepreneurship. Retrieved from The Hague, Netherlands:
    Matthews, C. H., & Brueggemann, R. (2015). Innovation and entrepreneurship: A competency framework. New York: Routledge.
    Matzler, K., Veider, V., & Kathan, W. (2015). Adapting to the sharing economy. MIT Sloan Management Review, 56(2), 71-77.
    Mintzberg, H. (2013). OvertureRebalancing society: Radical renewal beyond left, right, and center. Montreal:
    Mintzberg, H., & Azevedo, G. (2012). Fostering “Why not?” social initiatives — beyond business and governments. Development in Practice, 22(7), 895-908. doi:10.2307/41723150
    Mitchell, R. K. (2000). Introduction to the Venture Analysis Standards 2000: New Venture TemplateTMWorkbook. Victoria, B.C., Canada: International Centre for Venture Expertise.
    Mitchell, R. K., Busenitz, L., Lant, T., McDougall, P. P., Morse, E. A., & Smith, J. B. (2002). Toward a Theory of Entrepreneurial Cognition: Rethinking the People Side of Entrepreneurship Research. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 27(2), 93-104.
    Mitchell, R. K., Busenitz, L. W., Bird, B., Gaglio, C. M., McMullen, J. S., Morse, E. A., & Smith, J. B. (2007). The Central Question in Entrepreneurial Cognition Research 2007. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 31(1), 1-27.
    Mitchell, R. K., Smith, J. B., Morse, E. A., Seawright, K. W., Peredo, A. M., & McKenzie, B. (2002). Are entrepreneurial cognitions universal? Assessing entrepreneurial cognitions across cultures. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 26(4), 9-32.
    Mitton, D. G. (1989). The complete entrepreneur. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 13(3), 9-20.
    Mook, L., Quarter, J., & Richmond, B. J. (2007). What counts: social accounting for nonprofits and cooperatives (2nd ed.). London: Sigel Press.
    Moore, J. F. (1993). Predators and prey: A new ecology of competition. Harvard Business Review, May-June, 75-86.
    Murphy, P. J. (2011). A 2 x 2 conceptual foundation for entrepreneurial discovery theory. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 35(2), 359-374. doi:10.1111/j.1540-6520.2010.00368.x
    Neck, H. M., & Greene, P. G. (2011). Entrepreneurship education: Known worlds and new frontiers. Journal of Small Business Management, 49(1), 55-70. doi:10.1111/j.1540-627X.2010.00314.x
    Neck, H. M., Meyer, G. D., Cohen, B., & Corbett, A. C. (2004). An entrepreneurial system view of new venture creation. Journal of Small Business Management, 42(2), 190-208.
    Neisser, U. (1976). Cognition and Reality: Principles and implications of cognitive psychology. San Francisco, CA: W.H. Freeman.
    Network, C. C. (2015). Professional services. Retrieved from
    NOVA Rentals. (2015). About NOVA Rentals. Retrieved from
    Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development. (2005). Oslo manual: Guidelines for collecting and interpreting innovation data. Retrieved from
    Osterwalder, A., Pigneur, Y., & Clark, T. (2010). Business model generation: A handbook for visionaries, game changers, and challengers. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
    Patagonia. (2015a). Our reason for being. Retrieved from
    Patagonia. (2015b). Prepair is a radical act. Retrieved from
    Peredo, A. M., & Anderson, R. B. (2006). Indigenous entrepreneurship research: Themes and variations. In C. Galbraith & C. H. Stiles (Eds.), Developmental entrepreneurship : adversity, risk, and isolation (pp. 253-273). Oxford: Elsevier JAI.
    Peredo, A. M., Anderson, R. B., Galbraith, C. S., Honig, B., & Dana, L. P. (2004). Towards a theory of Indigenous entrepreneurship. International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, 1(1/2), 1-20.
    Peredo, A. M., & Chrisman, J. J. (2006). Toward a theory of community-based enterprise. Academy of Management Review, 31(2), 309-328.
    Porter, M. E. (1985). Competitive advantage: Creating and sustaining superior performance. New York: Free Press.
    Porter, M. E. (1996). What is strategy? Harvard Business Review, 74(6), 61-78.
    Porter, M. E., & Kramer, M. R. (2011). Creating shared value. Harvard Business Review, January-February 2011.
    PR Newswire. (2011). Patagonia launches Common Threads initiative: A partnership with customers to consumer less. Retrieved from
    Quarter, J., Mook, L., & Armstrong, A. (2009). Understanding the social economy: A Canadian perspective. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
    Quarter, J., Mook, L., & Ryan, S. (2010). Researching the social economy. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
    Ries, E. (2011). The lean startup: How today’s entrepreneurs use continuous innovation to create radically successful businesses. New York: Crown Business.
    Ring, J. K., Peredo, A. M., & Chrisman, J. J. (2010). Business networks and economic development in rural communities in the United States. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 34(1), 171-195.
    Rochford, L. (1991). Generating and screening new products ideas. Industrial Marketing Management, 20(4), 287-296. doi:10.1016/0019-8501(91)90003-x
    Rogers, E. M. (2003). Diffusion of innovations. New York: Free Press.
    Sarasvathy, S. D. (2001). Causation and effectuation: Toward a theoretical shift from economic inevitability to entrepreneurial contingency. The Academy of Management Review, 26(2), 243-263. doi:10.2307/259121
    Saskatchewan Roughrider Football Club Inc. (2012). Overview and goals: Share ownership rights. Retrieved from
    Saskatoon CarShare Co-operative. (2015). How it works. Retrieved from
    Scarborough, N. M., Wilson, D. L., & Zimmer, T. W. (2009). Effective small business management: An entrepreneurial approach (9th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.
    Schoenfeld, B. (2000). F.C. Barcelona: By the fans, for the fans. Retrieved from
    Schumpeter, J. A. (1934). The theory of economic development : An inquiry into profits, capital, credit, interest, and the business cycle (R. Opie, Trans.). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Sloan, F. A. (2000). Not-for-profit ownership and hospital behavior. In A. J. Culyer & J. Newhouse (Eds.), Handbook of Health Economics (Vol. 1, pp. 1141-1174). New York: North Holland.
    Smillie, C. (2015). History of Wolf Willow Cohousing. Retrieved from
    Solomon, G. (2007). An examination of entrepreneurship education in the United States. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, 14(2), 168-182.
    Somerville, P., & McElwee, G. (2011). Situating community enterprise: A theoretical exploration. Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, 23(5-6), 317-330. doi:10.1080/08985626.2011.580161
    Swanson, L. A., & Zhang, D. D. (2010). The social entrepreneurship zone. Journal of Nonprofit & Public Sector Marketing, 22(2), 71-88. doi:10.1080/10495140903550726
    Swanson, L. A., & Zhang, D. D. (2011). Complexity theory and the social entrepreneurship zone. Emergence: Complexity and Organization, 13(3), 39-56.
    Swanson, L. A., & Zhang, D. D. (2012). Social entrepreneurship. In T. Burger-Helmchen (Ed.), Entrepreneurship – gender, geographies, and social context (pp. 171-190). Strasbourg, France: InTech.
    Swanson, L. A., & Zhang, D. D. (2014). The base requirements, community, and regional levels of northern development. Northern Review, 38, 199-222.
    Torri, M.-C. (2010). Community-based enterprises: A promising basis towards an alternative entrepreneurial model for sustainability enhancing livelihoods and promoting socio-economic development in rural India. Journal of Small Business and Entrepreneurship, 23(2), 237-248.
    Venkataraman, S. (1997). The distinctive domain of entrepreneurship research. In J. A. Katz (Ed.), Advances in entrepreneurship, firm emergence, and growth (pp. 119-138). Greenwich, Conn.: JAI Press Inc.
    Vesper, K. H. (1996). New venture experience (revised ed.). Seattle, WA: Vector Books.
    Weidinger, C., Fischler, F., & Schmidpeter, R. (2014). Sustainable entrepreneurship: Business success through sustainability. New York: Springer.
    Winnipeg Blue Bombers. (2012). Community events: The Winnipeg Blue Bombers are proud to be a community-owned franchise. Retrieved from
    Woodin, T., Crook, D., & Carpentier, V. (2010). Community and mutual ownership. Retrieved from York, UK:
    Zaratiegui, J. M., & Rabade, L. A. (2005). Capital owners, entrepreneurs and managers: a Marshallian scheme. Management Decision, 43(5/6), 772-785.
    Zimmerer, T. W., & Scarborough, N. M. (2008). Essentials of entrepreneurship and small business management. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.
    • Was this article helpful?