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Glossary

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    54088
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    (Eg. "Genetic, Hereditary, DNA ...") (Eg. "Relating to genes or heredity") The infamous double helix https://bio.libretexts.org/ CC-BY-SA; Delmar Larsen
    Glossary Entries
    Word(s) Definition Image Caption Link Source
    5WH questions The questions that reporters and journalists use to gather information for their stories and that writers use in the writing process: Who? What? Where? When? Why? How?
    5WH questions The questions that reporters and journalists use to gather information for their stories and that writers use in the writing process: Who? What? Where? When? Why? How?
    abstract Referring to an intangible concept.
    abstract Referring to an intangible concept.
    abstract A concise (one hundred to one hundred fifty words) summary of research findings that appears at the beginning of an APA-style paper.
    abstract A concise (one hundred to one hundred fifty words) summary of research findings that appears at the beginning of an APA-style paper.
    abstract noun A noun that you cannot see, touch, or count.
    abstract noun A noun that you cannot see, touch, or count.
    accommodation The process by which you adapt or filter out new sources of information as they relate to your goal.
    accommodation The process by which you adapt or filter out new sources of information as they relate to your goal.
    action verb A verb that identifies the action the subject performs.
    action verb A verb that identifies the action the subject performs.
    adjective A word that describes a noun or a pronoun.
    adjective A word that describes a noun or a pronoun.
    adjective A word that describes a noun or a pronoun.
    adjective A word that describes a noun or a pronoun.
    adverb A word that describes a verb, adjective, or other adverb and often ends in -ly.
    adverb A word that describes a verb, adjective, or other adverb and often ends in -ly.
    adverb A word that describes a verb, adjective, or other adverb and often ends in -ly.
    adverb A word that describes a verb, adjective, or other adverb and often ends in -ly.
    agree To match parts of speech in number, case, gender or person.
    agree To match parts of speech in number, case, gender or person.
    analysis A purpose for writing that separates the individual points in a piece of writing and studies how the points relate to one another.
    analysis A purpose for writing that separates the individual points in a piece of writing and studies how the points relate to one another.
    antecedent The noun that a pronoun refers to.
    antecedent The noun that a pronoun refers to.
    Antonyms Words that have the opposite meaning of a given word.
    Antonyms Words that have the opposite meaning of a given word.
    apostrophe (’) A punctuation mark that is used with a noun to show possession or to indicate where a letter has been left out to form a contraction.
    apostrophe (’) A punctuation mark that is used with a noun to show possession or to indicate where a letter has been left out to form a contraction.
    appositive A word or group of words that describes or renames a noun or pronoun.
    appositive A word or group of words that describes or renames a noun or pronoun.
    assertion A declaration, a statement of fact, or claim of fact.
    assertion A declaration, a statement of fact, or claim of fact.
    asynchronous Occurring at different times.
    asynchronous Occurring at different times.
    audience The individual(s) or group(s) whom the writer intends to address.
    audience The individual(s) or group(s) whom the writer intends to address.
    Audience Identifies the individual(s) or group(s) whom the writer intends to address.
    Audience Identifies the individual(s) or group(s) whom the writer intends to address.
    benefit What the buyer gains with the purchase.
    benefit What the buyer gains with the purchase.
    block quotation A long quotation (forty words or more) that uses indentation, rather than quotation marks, to indicate that the material is quoted. Block quotations are indented five spaces from the left margin. The page reference is included in parentheses after the end punctuation for the quote.
    block quotation A long quotation (forty words or more) that uses indentation, rather than quotation marks, to indicate that the material is quoted. Block quotations are indented five spaces from the left margin. The page reference is included in parentheses after the end punctuation for the quote.
    Body sentences Sentences that support the topic sentence and relate clearly to the subject matter of the paragraph and overall document.
    Body sentences Sentences that support the topic sentence and relate clearly to the subject matter of the paragraph and overall document.
    Brainstorming A prewriting strategy similar to list making. Writers start with a general category and list specific items that fall into the category.
    Brainstorming A prewriting strategy similar to list making. Writers start with a general category and list specific items that fall into the category.
    Business proposals Document designed to make a persuasive appeal to the audience to achieve a defined outcome, often proposing a solution to a problem.
    Business proposals Document designed to make a persuasive appeal to the audience to achieve a defined outcome, often proposing a solution to a problem.
    Bypassing The misunderstanding that occurs when the receiver completely misses the source’s intended meaning.
    Bypassing The misunderstanding that occurs when the receiver completely misses the source’s intended meaning.
    capitalization Using a capital letter as the first letter of a word.
    capitalization Using a capital letter as the first letter of a word.
    Casual language Involves everyday words and expressions in a familiar group context.
    Casual language Involves everyday words and expressions in a familiar group context.
    Clichés A descriptive expression that has lost its effectiveness because it is overused.
    Clichés A descriptive expression that has lost its effectiveness because it is overused.
    cognate strategies Ways of framing, expressing and representing a message to an audience.
    cognate strategies Ways of framing, expressing and representing a message to an audience.
    coherence A quality in which the wording of an work clearly indicates how one idea leads to another within a paragraph and from paragraph to paragraph.
    coherence A quality in which the wording of an work clearly indicates how one idea leads to another within a paragraph and from paragraph to paragraph.
    collective noun A noun that identifies more than one person, place, or thing and treats those people, places, or things as a singular unit.
    collective noun A noun that identifies more than one person, place, or thing and treats those people, places, or things as a singular unit.
    Collective nouns A noun that identifies more than one person, place, or thing and treats those people, places, or things as a singular unit.
    Collective nouns A noun that identifies more than one person, place, or thing and treats those people, places, or things as a singular unit.
    Colloquial language An informal, conversational style of writing.
    Colloquial language An informal, conversational style of writing.
    colon (:) A punctuation mark that is used to indicate a full stop. Colons can introduce lists, quotes, examples, and explanations.
    colon (:) A punctuation mark that is used to indicate a full stop. Colons can introduce lists, quotes, examples, and explanations.
    comma A punctuation mark that tells the reader when to pause or when a word is part of a list.
    comma A punctuation mark that tells the reader when to pause or when a word is part of a list.
    comma splice A run-on sentence created by two complete sentences separated only by a single comma.
    comma splice A run-on sentence created by two complete sentences separated only by a single comma.
    commonly confused words Words that share a similar pronunciation, meaning, or spelling.
    commonly confused words Words that share a similar pronunciation, meaning, or spelling.
    Comparative Adjectives and adverbs used to compare two things.
    Comparative Adjectives and adverbs used to compare two things.
    Compiling Involves composing your speech out of materials from the documents and other sources you have collected.
    Compiling Involves composing your speech out of materials from the documents and other sources you have collected.
    Compound object pronouns Two or more pronouns joined by a conjunction or preposition that function as the object of the sentence.
    Compound object pronouns Two or more pronouns joined by a conjunction or preposition that function as the object of the sentence.
    compound subject A subject that is formed when two or more nouns are linked by the coordinating conjunctions and, or, or nor.
    compound subject A subject that is formed when two or more nouns are linked by the coordinating conjunctions and, or, or nor.
    Compound subject pronouns Two or more pronouns joined by a conjunction or preposition that function as the subject of the sentence.
    Compound subject pronouns Two or more pronouns joined by a conjunction or preposition that function as the subject of the sentence.
    compound subjects A subject that contains two or more nouns or pronouns joined by the words and, or, or nor.
    compound subjects A subject that contains two or more nouns or pronouns joined by the words and, or, or nor.
    concluding sentence The final sentence of a paragraph that summarizes the topic sentence using different words.
    concluding sentence The final sentence of a paragraph that summarizes the topic sentence using different words.
    conclusion The closing paragraph of an essay that reinforces the thesis statement and leaves the audience with a feeling of completion.
    conclusion The closing paragraph of an essay that reinforces the thesis statement and leaves the audience with a feeling of completion.
    Conclusion The final sentence in a paragraph that summarizes the main point.
    Conclusion The final sentence in a paragraph that summarizes the main point.
    conclusion sentence Sentence that brings the paragraph to a close.
    conclusion sentence Sentence that brings the paragraph to a close.
    concrete terms Describes something we can see and touch.
    concrete terms Describes something we can see and touch.
    confirmation bias When you only pay attention to information that reinforces your existing beliefs, and ignore or discredit information that contradicts your beliefs.
    confirmation bias When you only pay attention to information that reinforces your existing beliefs, and ignore or discredit information that contradicts your beliefs.
    conjunctive adverb An adverb that connects two clauses by describing the relationship between them.
    conjunctive adverb An adverb that connects two clauses by describing the relationship between them.
    connotation The emotional or cultural meaning attached to a word.
    connotation The emotional or cultural meaning attached to a word.
    Consistent verb tense Using the same verb tense throughout a sentence or paragraph.
    Consistent verb tense Using the same verb tense throughout a sentence or paragraph.
    Content All the written substance in a document.
    Content All the written substance in a document.
    context clues Words or phrases in a text that help clarify the meaning of an unfamiliar word.
    context clues Words or phrases in a text that help clarify the meaning of an unfamiliar word.
    Context clues Words or phrases in a text that help clarify the meaning of an unfamiliar word.
    Context clues Words or phrases in a text that help clarify the meaning of an unfamiliar word.
    contraction A word that is formed by combining two words. In a contraction, an apostrophe shows where one or more letters have been left out.
    contraction A word that is formed by combining two words. In a contraction, an apostrophe shows where one or more letters have been left out.
    controlling idea Indicates the writer’s stance on the main idea of a paragraph. The controlling idea appears in the paragraph’s topic sentence.
    controlling idea Indicates the writer’s stance on the main idea of a paragraph. The controlling idea appears in the paragraph’s topic sentence.
    controlling idea The main idea that guides the content of an essay; the idea upon which a thesis statement is built.
    controlling idea The main idea that guides the content of an essay; the idea upon which a thesis statement is built.
    conventions Conventional language patterns for a specific genre.
    conventions Conventional language patterns for a specific genre.
    conversational tone Writing style that resembles oral communication.
    conversational tone Writing style that resembles oral communication.
    coordinating adjectives A series of adjectives that come before the noun they describe.
    coordinating adjectives A series of adjectives that come before the noun they describe.
    coordinating conjunction A word that links two independent clauses. Common coordinating conjunctions are for, and, nor, but, or, yet, and so.
    coordinating conjunction A word that links two independent clauses. Common coordinating conjunctions are for, and, nor, but, or, yet, and so.
    coordinating conjunction A linking word that joins two independent clauses. The seven common coordinating conjunctions are for, and, nor, but, or, yet, and, so.
    coordinating conjunction A linking word that joins two independent clauses. The seven common coordinating conjunctions are for, and, nor, but, or, yet, and, so.
    correlative conjunction A paired conjunction that connects two equal parts of a sentence and shows the relationship between them. Common correlative conjunctions include both…and, neither…nor, and either…or.
    correlative conjunction A paired conjunction that connects two equal parts of a sentence and shows the relationship between them. Common correlative conjunctions include both…and, neither…nor, and either…or.
    count nouns A noun that can be made plural by adding -s.
    count nouns A noun that can be made plural by adding -s.
    Credibility Qualities, capabilities, or power to elicit from the audience belief in one’s character.
    Credibility Qualities, capabilities, or power to elicit from the audience belief in one’s character.
    Critical thinking “Self-directed, self-disciplined, self-monitored, and self-corrective thinking.”
    Critical thinking “Self-directed, self-disciplined, self-monitored, and self-corrective thinking.”
    Critical thinking “Self-directed, self-disciplined, self-monitored, and self-corrective thinking.”
    Critical thinking “Self-directed, self-disciplined, self-monitored, and self-corrective thinking.”
    dangling modifier A word, phrase, or clause that describes or modifies something that has been left out of the sentence.
    dangling modifier A word, phrase, or clause that describes or modifies something that has been left out of the sentence.
    dangling modifier A modifier that is not logically connected to the rest of the sentence.
    dangling modifier A modifier that is not logically connected to the rest of the sentence.
    dash (—) A punctuation mark used to set off information in a sentence for emphasis.
    dash (—) A punctuation mark used to set off information in a sentence for emphasis.
    definite article The word the that refers to one or more specific things.
    definite article The word the that refers to one or more specific things.
    dependent clause A group of words that contain a subject and verb but cannot stand alone as a complete thought.
    dependent clause A group of words that contain a subject and verb but cannot stand alone as a complete thought.
    dependent word The first word in a dependent clause. Common dependent words are since, because, without, unless, and so on.
    dependent word The first word in a dependent clause. Common dependent words are since, because, without, unless, and so on.
    DOI Digital Object Identifier, an identification code provided for some online documents, typically articles in scholarly journals. DOIs are more stable than URLs, so they should be included in reference entries when available.
    DOI Digital Object Identifier, an identification code provided for some online documents, typically articles in scholarly journals. DOIs are more stable than URLs, so they should be included in reference entries when available.
    double negative A phrase or sentence construction that employs two negatives to indicate a positive.
    double negative A phrase or sentence construction that employs two negatives to indicate a positive.
    Double negatives Two negatives used in the same phrase or sentence.
    Double negatives Two negatives used in the same phrase or sentence.
    Drafting The stage of the writing process in which the writer develops a complete first version of a piece of writing.
    Drafting The stage of the writing process in which the writer develops a complete first version of a piece of writing.
    e-mail Electronic mail.
    e-mail Electronic mail.
    edit To examine a piece of writing for how the writer expressed his or her ideas. Editing often involves adding or changing words, and fixing any problems in grammar, punctuation, and sentence structure.
    edit To examine a piece of writing for how the writer expressed his or her ideas. Editing often involves adding or changing words, and fixing any problems in grammar, punctuation, and sentence structure.
    Emotional resistance Occurs when the audience gets tired, often to the point of rejection, of hearing messages that attempt to elicit an emotional response.
    Emotional resistance Occurs when the audience gets tired, often to the point of rejection, of hearing messages that attempt to elicit an emotional response.
    Emotions A psychological and physical reaction, such as fear or anger, to stimuli that we experience as a feeling.
    Emotions A psychological and physical reaction, such as fear or anger, to stimuli that we experience as a feeling.
    et al. An abbreviation for the Latin phrase et alia, meaning “and others.” This abbreviation frequently appears in citations for works with multiple authors.
    et al. An abbreviation for the Latin phrase et alia, meaning “and others.” This abbreviation frequently appears in citations for works with multiple authors.
    evaluation A purpose for writing that communicates a writer’s opinion about a document or a topic and the justifications for that opinion.
    evaluation A purpose for writing that communicates a writer’s opinion about a document or a topic and the justifications for that opinion.
    exclamatory sentences Sentence that expresses a strong emotion.
    exclamatory sentences Sentence that expresses a strong emotion.
    expository writing Writing that conveys facts or descriptions.
    expository writing Writing that conveys facts or descriptions.
    Exposure Involves your condition of being presented with views, ideas, experiences, or made known to you through direct experience.
    Exposure Involves your condition of being presented with views, ideas, experiences, or made known to you through direct experience.
    external communications The sharing and understanding of meaning between individuals, departments, or representatives of the business and parties outside the organization.
    external communications The sharing and understanding of meaning between individuals, departments, or representatives of the business and parties outside the organization.
    Fallacy False logic.
    Fallacy False logic.
    faulty parallelism A failure to create grammatically parallel structures in a sentence.
    faulty parallelism A failure to create grammatically parallel structures in a sentence.
    formal outline A detailed guide that shows how all the supporting ideas in an essay are related to one other.
    formal outline A detailed guide that shows how all the supporting ideas in an essay are related to one other.
    fragment An incomplete sentence that results when a subject or a verb is missing.
    fragment An incomplete sentence that results when a subject or a verb is missing.
    Framing Placing an imaginary set of boundaries, much like a frame around a picture or a window, around a story, of what is included and omitted, influencing the story itself.
    Framing Placing an imaginary set of boundaries, much like a frame around a picture or a window, around a story, of what is included and omitted, influencing the story itself.
    Freewriting A prewriting strategy in which writers write freely about any topic for a set amount of time (usually three to five minutes).
    Freewriting A prewriting strategy in which writers write freely about any topic for a set amount of time (usually three to five minutes).
    funnel technique A writing device that begins with a broad statement and then gradually moves toward the heart of the matter.
    funnel technique A writing device that begins with a broad statement and then gradually moves toward the heart of the matter.
    General purposes The overall goal of the communication interaction: to inform, persuade, entertain, facilitate interaction, or motivate a reader.
    General purposes The overall goal of the communication interaction: to inform, persuade, entertain, facilitate interaction, or motivate a reader.
    gerund A verb form ending in -ing that is used as a noun, such as running, writing, or celebrating.
    gerund A verb form ending in -ing that is used as a noun, such as running, writing, or celebrating.
    gerund A verb form ending in -ing that is used as a noun, such as running, writing, or celebrating.
    gerund A verb form ending in -ing that is used as a noun, such as running, writing, or celebrating.
    Grammar The written construction of meaning from words, involving customs that evolve and adapt to usage over time.
    Grammar The written construction of meaning from words, involving customs that evolve and adapt to usage over time.
    grapevine The unofficial, informal communication network within an organization, often characterized by rumor, gossip, and innuendo.
    grapevine The unofficial, informal communication network within an organization, often characterized by rumor, gossip, and innuendo.
    helping verb Verbs that are used with a main verb to describe mood or tense. The helping verb is usually a form of be, do, or have.
    helping verb Verbs that are used with a main verb to describe mood or tense. The helping verb is usually a form of be, do, or have.
    helping verb A verb that is used with a main verb to describe mood or tense. The helping verb is usually a form of be, do, or have.
    helping verb A verb that is used with a main verb to describe mood or tense. The helping verb is usually a form of be, do, or have.
    helping verbs A verb that is used with a main verb to describe mood or tense. The helping verb is usually a form of be, do, or have.
    helping verbs A verb that is used with a main verb to describe mood or tense. The helping verb is usually a form of be, do, or have.
    Homonyms A word that sounds like another word but has a different meaning.
    Homonyms A word that sounds like another word but has a different meaning.
    hyphen (-) A punctuation mark that combines words that work together to form a single description, or it breaks a word across two lines of text.
    hyphen (-) A punctuation mark that combines words that work together to form a single description, or it breaks a word across two lines of text.
    Idea mapping A prewriting strategy in which writers cluster ideas on paper using circles, lines, and arrows.
    Idea mapping A prewriting strategy in which writers cluster ideas on paper using circles, lines, and arrows.
    Idioms Expressions that have a meaning different from the dictionary definitions of the individual words that make them up.
    Idioms Expressions that have a meaning different from the dictionary definitions of the individual words that make them up.
    Incorporation The process by which you bring the information into a whole or complete topic.
    Incorporation The process by which you bring the information into a whole or complete topic.
    Incubation The process by which you cause an idea or ideas to develop in your mind.
    Incubation The process by which you cause an idea or ideas to develop in your mind.
    indefinite articles The words a and an that refer to one nonspecific thing.
    indefinite articles The words a and an that refer to one nonspecific thing.
    Indefinite pronouns A pronoun that refers to an unspecified person, thing, or number.
    Indefinite pronouns Does not refer to a specific person or thing and is usually singular.
    Indefinite pronouns A pronoun that refers to an unspecified person, thing, or number.
    Indefinite pronouns Does not refer to a specific person or thing and is usually singular.
    independent clause A group of words that contains a subject and a verb and can stand alone as a complete, grammatically correct thought. An independent clause is a complete sentence.
    independent clause A group of words that contains a subject and a verb and can stand alone as a complete, grammatically correct thought. An independent clause is a complete sentence.
    independent verification Looking up facts in a different source from the one where you got it.
    independent verification Looking up facts in a different source from the one where you got it.
    indirect object A noun or pronoun in a sentence that answers to whom or to what the action is being done. The indirect object comes before the direct object in a sentence.
    indirect object A noun or pronoun in a sentence that answers to whom or to what the action is being done. The indirect object comes before the direct object in a sentence.
    indirect objects A noun or pronoun in a sentence that answers the question to whom? or to what? after the verb. The indirect object comes before the direct object in a sentence.
    indirect objects A noun or pronoun in a sentence that answers the question to whom? or to what? after the verb. The indirect object comes before the direct object in a sentence.
    indirect quotation A restatement of what someone said or wrote. An indirect quotation does not use the person’s exact words. You do not need to use quotation marks for indirect quotations.
    indirect quotation A restatement of what someone said or wrote. An indirect quotation does not use the person’s exact words. You do not need to use quotation marks for indirect quotations.
    infinitive A verb form that combines the word to with a verb, such as to buy, to go, or to gather.
    infinitive A verb form that combines the word to with a verb, such as to buy, to go, or to gather.
    infinitive Form of verb without a reference to time; in its standard form it includes the auxiliary word “to.”
    infinitive Form of verb without a reference to time; in its standard form it includes the auxiliary word “to.”
    interrupting words Words or phrases that describe a noun, separated from the rest of the sentence by commas. Interrupters can come before or after the noun they describe.
    interrupting words Words or phrases that describe a noun, separated from the rest of the sentence by commas. Interrupters can come before or after the noun they describe.
    introduction The opening paragraph of an essay that piques the audience’s interest, tells what the essay is about, and motivates the audience to keep reading.
    introduction The opening paragraph of an essay that piques the audience’s interest, tells what the essay is about, and motivates the audience to keep reading.
    inverted sentence A sentence that inverts the traditional subject-verb-object structure so that the verb follows the subject.
    inverted sentence A sentence that inverts the traditional subject-verb-object structure so that the verb follows the subject.
    irregular verbs Verbs that do not follow a predictable pattern when shifting tenses, such as from the present to the past tense.
    irregular verbs Verbs whose endings do not follow regular patterns when shifting from present to past tense.
    irregular verbs Verbs that do not follow a predictable pattern when shifting tenses, such as from the present to the past tense.
    irregular verbs Verbs whose endings do not follow regular patterns when shifting from present to past tense.
    Irregular verbs Verbs that change a vowel or convert to another word when representing the past tense.
    Irregular verbs Verbs that change a vowel or convert to another word when representing the past tense.
    Letters Brief message sent to recipient(s) that are often outside the organization.
    Letters Brief message sent to recipient(s) that are often outside the organization.
    Libel The written form of defamation, or a false statement that damages a reputation.
    Libel The written form of defamation, or a false statement that damages a reputation.
    linking verb A verb that connects or links the subject of a sentence to a noun or adjective.
    linking verb A verb that connects or links the subject of a sentence to a noun or adjective.
    linking verbs A verb that connects or links the subject of a sentence to a noun or adjective.
    linking verbs A verb that connects or links the subject of a sentence to a noun or adjective.
    logos Logic and reason.
    logos Logic and reason.
    memo An abbreviation for memorandum; normally used for communicating policies, procedures, or related official business within an organization.
    memo An abbreviation for memorandum; normally used for communicating policies, procedures, or related official business within an organization.
    metasearch Returning search results from several search engines at once.
    metasearch Returning search results from several search engines at once.
    misplaced modifier A modifier that is placed too far away from the word or words it modifies.
    misplaced modifier A modifier that is placed too far away from the word or words it modifies.
    MLA style Modern Language Association style, or MLA, is often used in the liberal arts and humanities. It provides a uniform framework for the manuscript and parenthetical citations, or in-text citations. It also provides the framework for the works cited area for listing references at the end of the essay.
    MLA style Modern Language Association style, or MLA, is often used in the liberal arts and humanities. It provides a uniform framework for the manuscript and parenthetical, or in-text, citations. It also provides the framework for the works cited area for listing references at the end of the essay.
    MLA style Modern Language Association style, or MLA, is often used in the liberal arts and humanities. It provides a uniform framework for the manuscript and parenthetical citations, or in-text citations. It also provides the framework for the works cited area for listing references at the end of the essay.
    MLA style Modern Language Association style, or MLA, is often used in the liberal arts and humanities. It provides a uniform framework for the manuscript and parenthetical, or in-text, citations. It also provides the framework for the works cited area for listing references at the end of the essay.
    modal auxiliaries A type of helping verb that is only used with a main verb to help express its mood.
    modal auxiliaries A type of helping verb that is only used with a main verb to help express its mood.
    modifier A word or phrase that qualifies the meaning of another element in a sentence.
    modifier A word or phrase that qualifies the meaning of another element in a sentence.
    modifier A word or phrase that qualifies the meaning of another element in a sentence.
    modifier A word or phrase that qualifies the meaning of another element in a sentence.
    Modifiers Describes a subject in a sentence, or indicates how or when the subject carried out the action.
    Modifiers Describes a subject in a sentence, or indicates how or when the subject carried out the action.
    Netiquette Etiquette, or protocols and norms for communication, on the Internet.
    Netiquette Etiquette, or protocols and norms for communication, on the Internet.
    noncount nouns A noun that cannot be counted in individual units.
    noncount nouns A noun that cannot be counted in individual units.
    object of the preposition A noun phrase or pronoun that follows a preposition and completes its meaning.
    object of the preposition A noun phrase or pronoun that follows a preposition and completes its meaning.
    Object pronouns Pronoun that functions as the object of a verb or a preposition.
    Object pronouns Pronoun that functions as the object of a verb or a preposition.
    Object pronouns Pronoun that functions as the object of a verb or a preposition; the “who” or “what” acted upon.
    Object pronouns Pronoun that functions as the object of a verb or a preposition; the “who” or “what” acted upon.
    order of importance A method of organization that arranges ideas according to their significance.
    order of importance A method of organization that arranges ideas according to their significance.
    order of importance A method of organization that arranges ideas according to their significance.
    order of importance A method of organization that arranges ideas according to their significance.
    outline A framework that organizes main ideas and subordinate ideas in a hierarchical series.
    outline A framework that organizes main ideas and subordinate ideas in a hierarchical series.
    Parallel construction The use of the same grammatical pattern; it can be applied to words, phrases, and sentences.
    Parallel construction The use of the same grammatical pattern; it can be applied to words, phrases, and sentences.
    parallelism Using the same grammatical structure to express equal ideas in a sentence. Parallelism may occur at the word, phrase, or clause level.
    parallelism Using the same grammatical structure to express equal ideas in a sentence. Parallelism may occur at the word, phrase, or clause level.
    paraphrase To restate ideas or information from sources using one’s own words and sentence structures.
    paraphrase To restate ideas or information from sources using one’s own words and sentence structures.
    paraphrase To rewrite information in your own words.
    paraphrase To rewrite information in your own words.
    Parentheses ( ) Punctuation marks that are used in pairs to contain information that is secondary to the meaning of a sentence.
    Parentheses ( ) Punctuation marks that are used in pairs to contain information that is secondary to the meaning of a sentence.
    passive voice Sentence structure in which the subject receives the action.
    passive voice Sentence structure in which the subject receives the action.
    past participle Often called the -ed form of the verb, it is formed by adding -d or -ed to the base form of regular verbs.
    past participle Often called the -ed form of the verb, it is formed by adding -d or -ed to the base form of regular verbs.
    Patch writing Verbatim cut-and-paste insertion of fragments of other publications into one’s own writing without crediting the sources.
    Patch writing Verbatim cut-and-paste insertion of fragments of other publications into one’s own writing without crediting the sources.
    pathos Passion and enthusiasm.
    pathos Passion and enthusiasm.
    peer review The process in which a writer allows a peer to read and evaluate a draft.
    peer review The process in which a writer allows a peer to read and evaluate a draft.
    plagiarism Representing another’s work as your own.
    plagiarism Representing another’s work as your own.
    plagiarism Representing another’s work as your own.
    plagiarism Representing another’s work as your own.
    possessive pronoun A pronoun that shows possession or ownership.
    possessive pronoun A pronoun that shows possession or ownership.
    prefix A word part added to the beginning of a word to create a new meaning.
    prefix A word part added to the beginning of a word to create a new meaning.
    preposition Type of word that connects a noun, pronoun, or verb to another word that describes or modifies it. Common prepositions include in, on, under, near, by, with, and about.
    preposition Type of word that connects a noun, pronoun, or verb to another word that describes or modifies it. Common prepositions include in, on, under, near, by, with, and about.
    prepositional phrase A group of words that begins with a preposition.
    prepositional phrase A group of words that begins with a preposition.
    prepositional phrase A group of words that begins with a preposition.
    prepositional phrase A group of words that begins with a preposition.
    prepositional phrase A phrase composed of a preposition and its object, which may be a noun, a pronoun, or a clause.
    prepositional phrase A phrase composed of a preposition and its object, which may be a noun, a pronoun, or a clause.
    Primary support The main points you use to support your thesis.
    Primary support The main points you use to support your thesis.
    priming An excited state of awareness.
    priming An excited state of awareness.
    Production Involves the act of creating your speech from the elements you have gathered; you may start to consider what comes first, what goes last, and how you will link your ideas and examples together.
    Production Involves the act of creating your speech from the elements you have gathered; you may start to consider what comes first, what goes last, and how you will link your ideas and examples together.
    Progressive verb tenses Verb tenses that describe a continuing or unfinished action.
    Progressive verb tenses Verb tenses that describe a continuing or unfinished action.
    pronoun A word that substitutes for a noun; for example, I, you, he, she, it, we, or they.
    pronoun A word that substitutes for a noun; for example, I, you, he, she, it, we, or they.
    pronoun A word that substitutes for a noun; for example, I, you, he, she, it, we, or they.
    pronoun A word that substitutes for a noun; for example, I, you, he, she, it, we, or they.
    Pronoun agreement When the pronoun and the antecedent match or agree with each other.
    Pronoun agreement When the pronoun and the antecedent match or agree with each other.
    Punctuation marks The traffic signals, signs, and indications that allow us to navigate the written word.
    Punctuation marks The traffic signals, signs, and indications that allow us to navigate the written word.
    Quotation marks (“ ”) Punctuation marks that are used in pairs to enclose direct quotations and titles of short works.
    Quotation marks (“ ”) Punctuation marks that are used in pairs to enclose direct quotations and titles of short works.
    Readability Readers’ ability to read and comprehend the document.
    Readability Readers’ ability to read and comprehend the document.
    reflection A mental review of the task and your performance.
    reflection A mental review of the task and your performance.
    Regular verbs Verbs that follow a predictable pattern when shifting tenses, such as from the present to the past tense.
    Regular verbs Verbs whose endings follow regular patterns when shifting from the present to past tense.
    Regular verbs Verbs that follow a predictable pattern when shifting tenses, such as from the present to the past tense.
    Regular verbs Verbs whose endings follow regular patterns when shifting from the present to past tense.
    relative clause A group of words that contains a subject and a verb and describes a noun. A relative clause functions as an adjective in a sentence.
    relative clause A group of words that contains a subject and a verb and describes a noun. A relative clause functions as an adjective in a sentence.
    relative pronoun A type of pronoun that helps combine two sentences.
    relative pronoun A type of pronoun that helps combine two sentences.
    Reports Document designed to record and convey information to the reader.
    Reports Document designed to record and convey information to the reader.
    résumé Document that summarizes your education, skills, talents, employment history, and experiences in a clear and concise format for potential employers.
    résumé Document that summarizes your education, skills, talents, employment history, and experiences in a clear and concise format for potential employers.
    revise To examine a piece of writing for clarity of ideas. Revising often includes adding, cutting, moving, or changing information in order to make the ideas clearer, more accurate, more interesting, or more convincing.
    revise To examine a piece of writing for clarity of ideas. Revising often includes adding, cutting, moving, or changing information in order to make the ideas clearer, more accurate, more interesting, or more convincing.
    revise Change one word for another, make subtle changes, and improve a document.
    revise Change one word for another, make subtle changes, and improve a document.
    Revision The process by which you look over your speech again in order to correct or improve it.
    Revision The process by which you look over your speech again in order to correct or improve it.
    rhetoric The art of presenting an argument.
    rhetoric The art of presenting an argument.
    run-on sentences A sentence made up of two or more independent clauses that have been incorrectly combined.
    run-on sentences A sentence made up of two or more independent clauses that have been incorrectly combined.
    sales message The central persuasive message that intrigues, informs, persuades, calls to action, and closes the sale.
    sales message The central persuasive message that intrigues, informs, persuades, calls to action, and closes the sale.
    section headings Headings used to organize information within an APA-style paper. APA style provides formatting guidelines for five levels of section and subsection headings; however, most college research papers require only one or two heading levels.
    section headings Headings used to organize information within an APA-style paper. APA style provides formatting guidelines for five levels of section and subsection headings; however, most college research papers require only one or two heading levels.
    semicolon (;) A punctuation mark that indicates a pause and joins two independent clauses or separates a list when the list already requires commas.
    semicolon (;) A punctuation mark that indicates a pause and joins two independent clauses or separates a list when the list already requires commas.
    sentence variety Use of an assortment of sentence patterns, rhythms, and lengths to reduce repetition and emphasize important points in a text.
    sentence variety Use of an assortment of sentence patterns, rhythms, and lengths to reduce repetition and emphasize important points in a text.
    serif A small cross line, often perpendicular to the stroke of the letter, that is decorative but also makes the letter easier to read.
    serif A small cross line, often perpendicular to the stroke of the letter, that is decorative but also makes the letter easier to read.
    Simple future Verb tense that is used when the action has not yet taken place.
    Simple future Verb tense that is used when the action has not yet taken place.
    Simple past Verb tense that is used when the action has already taken place and is now finished.
    Simple past Verb tense that is used when the action has already taken place and is now finished.
    Simple present Verb tense that describes things that are generally true, indicates that an action takes place in the present, or indicates that the action is something that happens regularly.
    Simple present Verb tense that describes things that are generally true, indicates that an action takes place in the present, or indicates that the action is something that happens regularly.
    single quotation marks (‘ ’) Punctuation marks that are always used in pairs to enclose a quotation within a quotation.
    single quotation marks (‘ ’) Punctuation marks that are always used in pairs to enclose a quotation within a quotation.
    slang Informal words that are considered nonstandard English.
    slang Informal words that are considered nonstandard English.
    Slang Informal words that are considered nonstandard English.
    Slang Informal words that are considered nonstandard English.
    sociocentrism Involves the use of society-centered standards.
    sociocentrism Involves the use of society-centered standards.
    spatial order A method of organization that arranges ideas according to physical characteristics or appearance.
    spatial order A method of organization that arranges ideas according to physical characteristics or appearance.
    Subject pronouns A pronoun that functions as the subject in a sentence; the “who” and the “what” the sentence is about.
    Subject pronouns A pronoun that functions as the subject in a sentence; the “who” and the “what” the sentence is about.
    subordinating conjunction A word that connects a subordinate (dependent) clause to an independent (main) clause.
    subordinating conjunction A word that connects a subordinate (dependent) clause to an independent (main) clause.
    Subordination It joins two related ideas of unequal importance.
    Subordination It joins two related ideas of unequal importance.
    suffix A word part added to the end of a word to create a new meaning.
    suffix A word part added to the end of a word to create a new meaning.
    summarize To reduce a concept, idea, or data set to its most basic point or element.
    summarize To reduce a concept, idea, or data set to its most basic point or element.
    summary A purpose for writing that condenses a long piece of writing into a smaller paragraph by extracting only the vital information. Writers use their own words to create summaries.
    summary A purpose for writing that condenses a long piece of writing into a smaller paragraph by extracting only the vital information. Writers use their own words to create summaries.
    Superlative Adjectives and adverbs used to compare more than two people or two things.
    Superlative Adjectives and adverbs used to compare more than two people or two things.
    Supporting sentences A sentence in the middle part of the paragraph that helps explain, enhance, or prove the topic sentence.
    Supporting sentences A sentence in the middle part of the paragraph that helps explain, enhance, or prove the topic sentence.
    Synonyms Words that have the same, or almost the same, meaning as another word.
    Synonyms Words that have the same, or almost the same, meaning as another word.
    syntax The grammatical arrangement of words in a sentence.
    syntax The grammatical arrangement of words in a sentence.
    synthesis A purpose for writing that considers the main points from one or more pieces of writing and links them together to create a new point.
    synthesis A purpose for writing that considers the main points from one or more pieces of writing and links them together to create a new point.
    Targeted practice Identifying one’s weak areas and specifically working to improve them.
    Targeted practice Identifying one’s weak areas and specifically working to improve them.
    Templates The normative expectations for a specific type of document.
    Templates The normative expectations for a specific type of document.
    Testimony Quotations from people involved in a matter. It lends authenticity and credibility to an argument.
    Testimony Quotations from people involved in a matter. It lends authenticity and credibility to an argument.
    texting Written communication in the form of brief messages using a digital device.
    texting Written communication in the form of brief messages using a digital device.
    thesis statement A sentence that presents the controlling idea of an essay. A thesis statement is often one sentence long and states the writer’s point of view.
    thesis statement A sentence that presents the controlling idea of an essay. A thesis statement is often one sentence long and states the writer’s point of view.
    thesis statement A sentence that presents the controlling idea of an essay. A thesis statement is often one sentence long and states the writer’s point of view.
    thesis statement A sentence that presents the controlling idea of an essay. A thesis statement is often one sentence long and states the writer’s point of view.
    topic sentence The sentence in a paragraph that controls the point of the paragraph. A topic sentence is most often located at the beginning of a paragraph, and it makes the structure of a text and the writer’s basic arguments easy to locate and comprehend.
    topic sentence The sentence in a paragraph that controls the point of the paragraph. A topic sentence is most often located at the beginning of a paragraph, and it makes the structure of a text and the writer’s basic arguments easy to locate and comprehend.
    topic sentence The sentence in a paragraph that controls the point of the paragraph. It is most often located at the beginning of a paragraph and makes the structure of a text and the writer’s basic argument easy to locate and comprehend.
    topic sentence The sentence in a paragraph that controls the point of the paragraph. It is most often located at the beginning of a paragraph and makes the structure of a text and the writer’s basic argument easy to locate and comprehend.
    topic sentence Sentence that states the main thesis, purpose, or subject of the paragraph.
    topic sentence Sentence that states the main thesis, purpose, or subject of the paragraph.
    transition Words and phrases that show how the ideas in sentences and paragraphs are related.
    transition Words and phrases that show how the ideas in sentences and paragraphs are related.
    transitions Words and phrases that show how the ideas in sentences and paragraphs are related.
    transitions Words and phrases that show how the ideas in sentences and paragraphs are related.
    Transitions Bridges between ideas, thoughts or concepts; words, phrases, or visual devices that help the audience follow the speaker’s ideas, connect the main points to each other, and see the relationships in a speech.
    Transitions Bridges between ideas, thoughts or concepts; words, phrases, or visual devices that help the audience follow the speaker’s ideas, connect the main points to each other, and see the relationships in a speech.
    Typeface The visual design of symbols, including letters and numbers.
    Typeface The visual design of symbols, including letters and numbers.
    URL A uniform resource locator, or web address. Writers may provide URLs to help readers locate information that was accessed online. Guidelines for whether to provide a deep link within a site or a general link to the homepage or index vary depending on the type of online source.
    URL A uniform resource locator, or web address. Writers may provide URLs to help readers locate information that was accessed online. Guidelines for whether to provide a deep link within a site or a general link to the homepage or index vary depending on the type of online source.
    verb A word that tells what the subject is doing or links the subject to a describing word.
    verb A word that tells what the subject is doing or links the subject to a describing word.
    verb A word that tells what the subject is doing or links the subject to a describing word.
    verb A word that tells what the subject is doing or links the subject to a describing word.
    verb A word that tells what the subject is doing or links the subject to a describing word.
    verb A word that tells what the subject is doing or links the subject to a describing word.
    Verb tense A verb form that identifies the time of action described in a sentence.
    Verb tense A verb form that identifies the time of action described in a sentence.
    Verb tense Refers to the point in time where action occurs.
    Verb tense Refers to the point in time where action occurs.
    Verb tenses A verb form that identifies the time of action described in a sentence.
    Verb tenses A verb form that identifies the time of action described in a sentence.
    verbatim Word for word.
    verbatim Word for word.
    vocabulary A collection of spoken and written words used by individuals or groups.
    vocabulary A collection of spoken and written words used by individuals or groups.
    white space The space on the page free of text.
    white space The space on the page free of text.
    working thesis statement The first thesis statement writers use while outlining an assignment. A working thesis statement may change during the writing process.
    working thesis statement The first thesis statement writers use while outlining an assignment. A working thesis statement may change during the writing process.
    working thesis statement An indefinite statement that you make about your topic early in the writing process for the purpose of planning and guiding your writing.
    working thesis statement An indefinite statement that you make about your topic early in the writing process for the purpose of planning and guiding your writing.
    Writing style Also known as voice or tone; the manner in which a writer addresses the reader.
    Writing style Also known as voice or tone; the manner in which a writer addresses the reader.