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Glossary

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    54087
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    Glossary Entries
    Word(s) Definition Image Caption Link Source
    Ability Involves the natural aptitude or acquired proficiency to be able to perform.        
    abstract Referring to an intangible concept.        
    accommodation The process by which you adapt or filter out new sources of information as they relate to your goal.        
    Acculturation The transition to living abroad.        
    active listening and reading Focusing your attention on the message you are hearing or reading, without distractions or interruptions.        
    active listening and reading Focusing your attention on the message you are hearing or reading, without distractions or interruptions.        
    adjourning stage Time when group members leave the group.        
    adjourning stage Time when group members leave the group.        
    Adoption Persuading the audience to take on a new way of thinking or adopt a new idea.        
    Adoption Persuading the audience to take on a new way of thinking or adopt a new idea.        
    Affect displays An expression of emotion or mood.        
    Affect displays An expression of emotion or mood.        
    agenda setting Selecting what the audience will see and hear and in what order.        
    agenda setting Selecting what the audience will see and hear and in what order.        
    anarchy Political state in which there is no government.        
    anarchy Political state in which there is no government.        
    anomaly Something that doesn’t fit, challenges the existing norm, or stands apart from the anticipated results.        
    anomaly Something that doesn’t fit, challenges the existing norm, or stands apart from the anticipated results.        
    anticipation step Raising the hand slightly to signal a nonverbal foreshadowing.        
    anticipation step Raising the hand slightly to signal a nonverbal foreshadowing.        
    Appeal Involves the attractive power of arousing a sympathetic, stimulated response from the audience.        
    Appeal Involves the attractive power of arousing a sympathetic, stimulated response from the audience.        
    appeal to emotion A word, sound, or image that arouses an emotional response in the audience.        
    appeal to emotion A word, sound, or image that arouses an emotional response in the audience.        
    appointed leader Individual designated by an authority to serve in the leadership capacity.        
    appointed leader Individual designated by an authority to serve in the leadership capacity.        
    Appropriateness Involves a topic that is especially suitable or compatible with your audience’s interest, expectations, norms, or customs.        
    Appropriateness Involves a topic that is especially suitable or compatible with your audience’s interest, expectations, norms, or customs.        
    Arrangement Order; the organization of visual (and verbal) elements.        
    Arrangement Order; the organization of visual (and verbal) elements.        
    artifacts Nonverbal representations of communication.        
    artifacts Nonverbal representations of communication.        
    Artifacts Nonverbal representations of communication.        
    Artifacts Nonverbal representations of communication.        
    assertion A declaration, a statement of fact, or claim of fact.        
    assertion A declaration, a statement of fact, or claim of fact.        
    assume similarity Thinking that people are all basically similar.        
    assume similarity Thinking that people are all basically similar.        
    assurance Statement that the contributing factors that gave rise to the situation has been corrected or where beyond the control of the company and its representatives.        
    assurance Statement that the contributing factors that gave rise to the situation has been corrected or where beyond the control of the company and its representatives.        
    asynchronous Occurring at different times.        
    asynchronous Occurring at different times.        
    attention statement The way you focus the audience’s attention on you and your speech.        
    attention statement The way you focus the audience’s attention on you and your speech.        
    attitude Your immediate disposition toward a concept or an object.        
    attitude Your immediate disposition toward a concept or an object.        
    authority pages Frequently cited documents.        
    authority pages Frequently cited documents.        
    autocratic leader Self-directed leader who establishes norms and conduct for the group.        
    autocratic leader Self-directed leader who establishes norms and conduct for the group.        
    Auxiliary messages Refer to the intentional and unintentional ways a primary message is communicated.        
    Auxiliary messages Refer to the intentional and unintentional ways a primary message is communicated.        
    award A symbol of approval, recognition, or distinction that honors the recipient in public.        
    award A symbol of approval, recognition, or distinction that honors the recipient in public.        
    awareness The ability to be conscious of events and stimuli.        
    awareness The ability to be conscious of events and stimuli.        
    behavioral evaluation Assesses the action, not the actor.        
    behavioral evaluation Assesses the action, not the actor.        
    Beliefs Ideas based on our previous experiences and convictions, not necessarily based on logic or fact.        
    Beliefs Ideas based on our previous experiences and convictions, not necessarily based on logic or fact.        
    benefit What the buyer gains with the purchase.        
    benefit What the buyer gains with the purchase.        
    Bias An unreasoned or not-well-thought-out judgment.        
    Bias An unreasoned or not-well-thought-out judgment.        
    body Main content area of a speech.        
    body Main content area of a speech.        
    Body sentences Sentences that support the topic sentence and relate clearly to the subject matter of the paragraph and overall document.        
    Body sentences Sentences that support the topic sentence and relate clearly to the subject matter of the paragraph and overall document.        
    Business proposals Document designed to make a persuasive appeal to the audience to achieve a defined outcome, often proposing a solution to a problem.        
    Business proposals Document designed to make a persuasive appeal to the audience to achieve a defined outcome, often proposing a solution to a problem.        
    Bypassing The misunderstanding that occurs when the receiver completely misses the source’s intended meaning.        
    Bypassing The misunderstanding that occurs when the receiver completely misses the source’s intended meaning.        
    Casual language Involves everyday words and expressions in a familiar group context.        
    Casual language Involves everyday words and expressions in a familiar group context.        
    Centralized rule Political system where power is concentrated, such as dictatorship, communism, or theocracy.        
    Centralized rule Political system where power is concentrated, such as dictatorship, communism, or theocracy.        
    channel The way in which a message or messages travel between source and receiver.        
    channel The way in which a message or messages travel between source and receiver.        
    Chronemics The study of how we refer to and perceive time.        
    Chronemics The study of how we refer to and perceive time.        
    Clarity Strategies that help the receiver (audience) to decode the message, to understand it quickly and completely, and when necessary, to react without ambivalence.        
    Clarity Strategies that help the receiver (audience) to decode the message, to understand it quickly and completely, and when necessary, to react without ambivalence.        
    cliché A once-clever word or phrase that has lost its impact through overuse.        
    cliché A once-clever word or phrase that has lost its impact through overuse.        
    Closed-ended questions Limit the responses to a preselected range of options or choices.        
    Closed-ended questions Limit the responses to a preselected range of options or choices.        
    closure Our tendency to use previous knowledge to fill in the gaps in an incomplete idea or picture.        
    closure Our tendency to use previous knowledge to fill in the gaps in an incomplete idea or picture.        
    cognate strategies Ways of framing, expressing and representing a message to an audience.        
    cognate strategies Ways of framing, expressing and representing a message to an audience.        
    cognate strategies Ways of framing, expressing and representing a message to an audience.        
    cognate strategies Ways of framing, expressing and representing a message to an audience.        
    Colloquial language An informal, conversational style of writing.        
    Colloquial language An informal, conversational style of writing.        
    common law Legal system in which the judge interprets the law and considers the concept of precedent, or previous decisions.        
    common law Legal system in which the judge interprets the law and considers the concept of precedent, or previous decisions.        
    Communication The process of understanding and sharing meaning.        
    Communication The process of understanding and sharing meaning.        
    Compiling Involves composing your speech out of materials from the documents and other sources you have collected.        
    Compiling Involves composing your speech out of materials from the documents and other sources you have collected.        
    Compiling Involves composing your speech out of materials from the documents and other sources you have collected.        
    Compiling Involves composing your speech out of materials from the documents and other sources you have collected.        
    Conciseness Being brief and direct in the visual and verbal delivery of your message, avoiding unnecessary intricacy.        
    Conciseness Being brief and direct in the visual and verbal delivery of your message, avoiding unnecessary intricacy.        
    conclusion Part of a speech that provides the audience with a sense of closure by summarizing the main points and relating the points to the overall topic.        
    conclusion Part of a speech that provides the audience with a sense of closure by summarizing the main points and relating the points to the overall topic.        
    conclusion sentence Sentence that brings the paragraph to a close.        
    conclusion sentence Sentence that brings the paragraph to a close.        
    concrete terms Describes something we can see and touch.        
    concrete terms Describes something we can see and touch.        
    confirmation bias When you only pay attention to information that reinforces your existing beliefs, and ignore or discredit information that contradicts your beliefs.        
    confirmation bias When you only pay attention to information that reinforces your existing beliefs, and ignore or discredit information that contradicts your beliefs.        
    Conflict The physical or psychological struggle associated with the perception of opposing or incompatible goals, desires, demands, wants, or needs.        
    Conflict The physical or psychological struggle associated with the perception of opposing or incompatible goals, desires, demands, wants, or needs.        
    confounding factors Factors that can alter the results; must be anticipated and controlled.        
    confounding factors Factors that can alter the results; must be anticipated and controlled.        
    connotative meaning A meaning often not found in the dictionary but in the community of users; it can involve an emotional association, and can be individual or collective, but is not universal.        
    connotative meaning A meaning often not found in the dictionary but in the community of users; it can involve an emotional association, and can be individual or collective, but is not universal.        
    constructivist Model of communication focusing on the negotiated meaning, or common ground, when trying to describe communication.        
    constructivist Model of communication focusing on the negotiated meaning, or common ground, when trying to describe communication.        
    context Involves the setting, scene, and expectations of the individuals involved.        
    context Involves the setting, scene, and expectations of the individuals involved.        
    Contextual rules Govern meaning and word choice according to context and social custom.        
    Contextual rules Govern meaning and word choice according to context and social custom.        
    continuance Persuading the audience to continue doing what they have been doing.        
    continuance Persuading the audience to continue doing what they have been doing.        
    continuity Tendency for our brain to see lines and movement where none exist.        
    continuity Tendency for our brain to see lines and movement where none exist.        
    conventions Conventional language patterns for a specific genre.        
    conventions Conventional language patterns for a specific genre.        
    conventions Conventional language patterns for a specific genre.        
    conventions Conventional language patterns for a specific genre.        
    conversational tone Writing style that resembles oral communication.        
    conversational tone Writing style that resembles oral communication.        
    cookies Small, time-encoded files that identify specific users.        
    cookies Small, time-encoded files that identify specific users.        
    cost-benefit analysis Method of ranking each possible solution according to its probable impact.        
    cost-benefit analysis Method of ranking each possible solution according to its probable impact.        
    Credibility Qualities, capabilities, or power to elicit from the audience belief in one’s character.        
    Credibility Qualities, capabilities, or power to elicit from the audience belief in one’s character.        
    Credibility Qualities, capabilities, or power to elicit from the audience belief in one’s character.        
    Credibility Qualities, capabilities, or power to elicit from the audience belief in one’s character.        
    crisis communication plan The prepared scenario document that organizes information into responsibilities and lines of communication prior to an event.        
    crisis communication plan The prepared scenario document that organizes information into responsibilities and lines of communication prior to an event.        
    Critical thinking “Self-directed, self-disciplined, self-monitored, and self-corrective thinking.”        
    Critical thinking “Self-directed, self-disciplined, self-monitored, and self-corrective thinking.”        
    Critical thinking “Self-directed, self-disciplined, self-monitored, and self-corrective thinking.”        
    Critical thinking “Self-directed, self-disciplined, self-monitored, and self-corrective thinking.”        
    cultural value system What you value and pay attention to.        
    cultural value system What you value and pay attention to.        
    culture “A set of beliefs and understandings a society has about the world, its place in it, and the various activities used to celebrate and reinforce those beliefs.”        
    culture “A set of beliefs and understandings a society has about the world, its place in it, and the various activities used to celebrate and reinforce those beliefs.”        
    customer relationship management The relationship between the organization (sometimes represented by the product or service itself) and the customer.        
    customer relationship management The relationship between the organization (sometimes represented by the product or service itself) and the customer.        
    Democracy Political system or form of government that promotes the involvement of the individual.        
    Democracy Political system or form of government that promotes the involvement of the individual.        
    democratic leader Individual elected by a group to serve as its leader.        
    democratic leader Individual elected by a group to serve as its leader.        
    Democrats People who share the need for control between the individual and the group.        
    Democrats People who share the need for control between the individual and the group.        
    Demographic traits Characteristics that make someone an individual, but that he or she has in common with others.        
    Demographic traits Characteristics that make someone an individual, but that he or she has in common with others.        
    Deterrence Persuading audience not to start something if they haven’t already started.        
    Deterrence Persuading audience not to start something if they haven’t already started.        
    diagram A visual depiction of how variables relate to each other or how something works.        
    diagram A visual depiction of how variables relate to each other or how something works.        
    Direct feedback A response that comes from the receiver.        
    Direct feedback A response that comes from the receiver.        
    Discontinuance Persuading the audience to stop doing something that they have been doing.        
    Discontinuance Persuading the audience to stop doing something that they have been doing.        
    double negative A phrase or sentence construction that employs two negatives to indicate a positive.        
    double negative A phrase or sentence construction that employs two negatives to indicate a positive.        
    double-booking Misunderstanding in which two meetings are scheduled at the same time in the same place.        
    double-booking Misunderstanding in which two meetings are scheduled at the same time in the same place.        
    Doublespeak The deliberate use of words to disguise, obscure, or change meaning.        
    Doublespeak The deliberate use of words to disguise, obscure, or change meaning.        
    dyadic effect The expectation that when we reveal something about ourselves, others will reciprocate.        
    dyadic effect The expectation that when we reveal something about ourselves, others will reciprocate.        
    e-mail Electronic mail.        
    e-mail Electronic mail.        
    egalitarian Believing in basic equality.        
    egalitarian Believing in basic equality.        
    electronic slides Images created from templates in a slideware program such as PowerPoint which present visual information to the audience.        
    electronic slides Images created from templates in a slideware program such as PowerPoint which present visual information to the audience.        
    elevator speech A presentation that persuades the listener in less than thirty seconds.        
    elevator speech A presentation that persuades the listener in less than thirty seconds.        
    emblem Nonverbal gesture that carries a specific meaning and can replace or reinforce words.        
    emblem Nonverbal gesture that carries a specific meaning and can replace or reinforce words.        
    emergent leader Individual who grows into the leadership role, often out of necessity.        
    emergent leader Individual who grows into the leadership role, often out of necessity.        
    Emotional resistance Occurs when the audience gets tired, often to the point of rejection, of hearing messages that attempt to elicit an emotional response.        
    Emotional resistance Occurs when the audience gets tired, often to the point of rejection, of hearing messages that attempt to elicit an emotional response.        
    Emotional resistance Occurs when the audience gets tired, often to the point of rejection, of hearing messages that attempt to elicit an emotional response.        
    Emotional resistance Occurs when the audience gets tired, often to the point of rejection, of hearing messages that attempt to elicit an emotional response.        
    Emotions A psychological and physical reaction, such as fear or anger, to stimuli that we experience as a feeling.        
    Emotions A psychological and physical reaction, such as fear or anger, to stimuli that we experience as a feeling.        
    Emotions A psychological and physical reaction, such as fear or anger, to stimuli that we experience as a feeling.        
    Emotions A psychological and physical reaction, such as fear or anger, to stimuli that we experience as a feeling.        
    Empathetic listening Listening to both the literal and implied meanings within a message.        
    Empathetic listening Listening to both the literal and implied meanings within a message.        
    employment interview An exchange between a candidate and a prospective employer (or their representative).        
    employment interview An exchange between a candidate and a prospective employer (or their representative).        
    environment Involves the physical and psychological aspects of the communication context.        
    environment Involves the physical and psychological aspects of the communication context.        
    Environment Involves the physical and psychological aspects of the communication context.        
    Environment Involves the physical and psychological aspects of the communication context.        
    Ethics Refers to a set of principles or rules for correct conduct.        
    Ethics Refers to a set of principles or rules for correct conduct.        
    Ethnocentrism The tendency to view other cultures as inferior to one’s own.        
    Ethnocentrism The tendency to view other cultures as inferior to one’s own.        
    Ethnocentrism The tendency to view other cultures as inferior to one’s own.        
    Ethnocentrism The tendency to view other cultures as inferior to one’s own.        
    Etiquette A conventional social custom or rule for polite behavior.        
    Etiquette A conventional social custom or rule for polite behavior.        
    euphemism Involves substituting an acceptable word for an offensive, controversial, or unacceptable one that conveys the same or similar meaning.        
    euphemism Involves substituting an acceptable word for an offensive, controversial, or unacceptable one that conveys the same or similar meaning.        
    Evaluative feedback Often involves judgment of the writer and his or her ethos, or credibility.        
    Evaluative feedback Often involves judgment of the writer and his or her ethos, or credibility.        
    ex-member Individual who no longer belongs to a group.        
    ex-member Individual who no longer belongs to a group.        
    exclamatory sentences Sentence that expresses a strong emotion.        
    exclamatory sentences Sentence that expresses a strong emotion.        
    Expectations Anticipation of the norms, roles and outcomes of the speaker and the speech.        
    Expectations Anticipation of the norms, roles and outcomes of the speaker and the speech.        
    Exploitation Taking advantage of someone or something; using someone else for one’s own purposes.        
    Exploitation Taking advantage of someone or something; using someone else for one’s own purposes.        
    Exposition A public exhibition or display, often expressing a complex topic in a way that makes the relationships and content clear.        
    Exposition A public exhibition or display, often expressing a complex topic in a way that makes the relationships and content clear.        
    Exposure Involves your condition of being presented with views, ideas, experiences, or made known to you through direct experience.        
    Exposure Involves your condition of being presented with views, ideas, experiences, or made known to you through direct experience.        
    Exposure Involves your condition of being presented with views, ideas, experiences, or made known to you through direct experience.        
    Exposure Involves your condition of being presented with views, ideas, experiences, or made known to you through direct experience.        
    External communication The sharing and understanding of meaning between individuals, departments, or representatives of the business and parties outside the organization.        
    External communication The sharing and understanding of meaning between individuals, departments, or representatives of the business and parties outside the organization.        
    external communications The sharing and understanding of meaning between individuals, departments, or representatives of the business and parties outside the organization.        
    external communications The sharing and understanding of meaning between individuals, departments, or representatives of the business and parties outside the organization.        
    External feedback A response from the receiver.        
    External feedback A response from the receiver.        
    External stimuli Involves stimulation from outside one’s self.        
    External stimuli Involves stimulation from outside one’s self.        
    Eye contact The speaker’s gaze that engages the audience members.        
    Eye contact The speaker’s gaze that engages the audience members.        
    Face-saving strategies Messages or statements that protect credibility and separate message from messenger.        
    Face-saving strategies Messages or statements that protect credibility and separate message from messenger.        
    Facial gestures Using your face to display feelings and attitudes nonverbally.        
    Facial gestures Using your face to display feelings and attitudes nonverbally.        
    Fallacies False logic.        
    Fallacies False logic.        
    Fallacy False logic.        
    Fallacy False logic.        
    Feedback The verbal and/or nonverbal response to a message.        
    Feedback The verbal and/or nonverbal response to a message.        
    Feedback The verbal and/or nonverbal response to a message.        
    Feedback The verbal and/or nonverbal response to a message.        
    Feedback The verbal and/or nonverbal response to a message.        
    Feedback The verbal and/or nonverbal response to a message.        
    Feedback The verbal and/or nonverbal response to a message.        
    Feedback The verbal and/or nonverbal response to a message.        
    five-finger model of public speaking Consists of the attention statement, introduction, body, conclusion, residual message.        
    five-finger model of public speaking Consists of the attention statement, introduction, body, conclusion, residual message.        
    Forums Theme-based Web sites that gather a community of individuals dedicated to a common interest.        
    Forums Theme-based Web sites that gather a community of individuals dedicated to a common interest.        
    Framing Placing an imaginary set of boundaries, much like a frame around a picture or a window, around a story, of what is included and omitted, influencing the story itself.        
    Framing Placing an imaginary set of boundaries, much like a frame around a picture or a window, around a story, of what is included and omitted, influencing the story itself.        
    Framing Placing an imaginary set of boundaries, much like a frame around a picture or a window, around a story, of what is included and omitted, influencing the story itself.        
    Framing Placing an imaginary set of boundaries, much like a frame around a picture or a window, around a story, of what is included and omitted, influencing the story itself.        
    Full members Individual who is a known quantity, is familiar with the group’s norms, and feels free to express opinions.        
    Full members Individual who is a known quantity, is familiar with the group’s norms, and feels free to express opinions.        
    Gatekeeping “A process of determining what news, information, or entertainment will reach a mass audience.”        
    Gatekeeping “A process of determining what news, information, or entertainment will reach a mass audience.”        
    General purposes The overall goal of the communication interaction: to inform, persuade, entertain, facilitate interaction, or motivate a reader.        
    General purposes The overall goal of the communication interaction: to inform, persuade, entertain, facilitate interaction, or motivate a reader.        
    global village Characterized by information and transportation technologies that reduce the time and space required to interact.        
    global village Characterized by information and transportation technologies that reduce the time and space required to interact.        
    Goals What we value and are willing to work for, and varies widely across cultures.        
    Goals What we value and are willing to work for, and varies widely across cultures.        
    Grammar The written construction of meaning from words, involving customs that evolve and adapt to usage over time.        
    Grammar The written construction of meaning from words, involving customs that evolve and adapt to usage over time.        
    grapevine The unofficial, informal communication network within an organization, often characterized by rumor, gossip, and innuendo.        
    grapevine The unofficial, informal communication network within an organization, often characterized by rumor, gossip, and innuendo.        
    grapevine The unofficial, informal communication network within an organization, often characterized by rumor, gossip, and innuendo.        
    grapevine The unofficial, informal communication network within an organization, often characterized by rumor, gossip, and innuendo.        
    group Three or more individuals who affiliate, interact or cooperate in a familial, social, or work context.        
    group Three or more individuals who affiliate, interact or cooperate in a familial, social, or work context.        
    Group communication The exchange of information with those who are culturally, linguistically, and/or geographically alike.        
    Group communication The exchange of information with those who are culturally, linguistically, and/or geographically alike.        
    Group communication The exchange of information with those who are culturally, linguistically, and/or geographically alike.        
    Group communication The exchange of information with those who are culturally, linguistically, and/or geographically alike.        
    Group socialization Involves how the group members interact with one another and form relationships.        
    Group socialization Involves how the group members interact with one another and form relationships.        
    Groupthink Tendency to accept the group’s ideas and actions in spite of individual concerns.        
    Groupthink Tendency to accept the group’s ideas and actions in spite of individual concerns.        
    gunnysacking (or backpacking) The imaginary bag we all carry, into which we place unresolved conflicts or grievances over time.        
    gunnysacking (or backpacking) The imaginary bag we all carry, into which we place unresolved conflicts or grievances over time.        
    haptics Touch in communication interaction.        
    haptics Touch in communication interaction.        
    honesty Truthfulness; a key ingredient in trust.        
    honesty Truthfulness; a key ingredient in trust.        
    Honesty Truthfulness; a key ingredient in trust.        
    Honesty Truthfulness; a key ingredient in trust.        
    implementation step Holding one hand at waist level pointing outward, and raising it up with your palm forward, as in the “stop” gesture.        
    implementation step Holding one hand at waist level pointing outward, and raising it up with your palm forward, as in the “stop” gesture.        
    implicit-rule culture Rules are often understood and communicated nonverbally.        
    implicit-rule culture Rules are often understood and communicated nonverbally.        
    Importance Involves perceptions of worth, value, and usefulness.        
    Importance Involves perceptions of worth, value, and usefulness.        
    Incorporation The process by which you bring the information into a whole or complete topic.        
    Incorporation The process by which you bring the information into a whole or complete topic.        
    Incorporation The process by which you bring the information into a whole or complete topic.        
    Incorporation The process by which you bring the information into a whole or complete topic.        
    Incubation The process by which you cause an idea or ideas to develop in your mind.        
    Incubation The process by which you cause an idea or ideas to develop in your mind.        
    Incubation The process by which you cause an idea or ideas to develop in your mind.        
    Incubation The process by which you cause an idea or ideas to develop in your mind.        
    independent verification Looking up facts in a different source from the one where you got it.        
    independent verification Looking up facts in a different source from the one where you got it.        
    indirect feedback A response that does not come from directly from the receiver or source.        
    indirect feedback A response that does not come from directly from the receiver or source.        
    individual differences Attributes that cause different people to perceive things differently.        
    individual differences Attributes that cause different people to perceive things differently.        
    individualistic cultures This culture values individual freedom and personal independence.        
    individualistic cultures This culture values individual freedom and personal independence.        
    infinitive Form of verb without a reference to time; in its standard form it includes the auxiliary word “to.”        
    infinitive Form of verb without a reference to time; in its standard form it includes the auxiliary word “to.”        
    Inter-rater reliability The degree to which each evaluator evaluates the same in similar contexts.        
    Inter-rater reliability The degree to which each evaluator evaluates the same in similar contexts.        
    Interest Qualities that arouse attention, stimulate curiosity, or move an individual to a more excited state of mind.        
    Interest Qualities that arouse attention, stimulate curiosity, or move an individual to a more excited state of mind.        
    Interference Anything that blocks or changes the source’s intended meaning of the message.        
    Interference Anything that blocks or changes the source’s intended meaning of the message.        
    Internal feedback Feedback generated by the source in response to the message created by that same source.        
    Internal feedback Feedback generated by the source in response to the message created by that same source.        
    Internal monologue The self-talk of intrapersonal communication.        
    Internal monologue The self-talk of intrapersonal communication.        
    Interpersonal communication Communication between two people.        
    Interpersonal communication Communication between two people.        
    Interpersonal communication Communication between two people.        
    Interpersonal communication Communication between two people.        
    Interpretive feedback Requests confirmation or clarification of a message, often in the form of a question.        
    Interpretive feedback Requests confirmation or clarification of a message, often in the form of a question.        
    intracultural communication Communication within the same culture.        
    intracultural communication Communication within the same culture.        
    intrapersonal communication Communication with yourself.        
    intrapersonal communication Communication with yourself.        
    Intrapersonal communication Communication with yourself.        
    Intrapersonal communication Communication with yourself.        
    Intrapersonal communication Communication with yourself.        
    Intrapersonal communication Communication with yourself.        
    introduction Part of a speech that establishes a relationship with your audience and clearly states your topic.        
    introduction Part of a speech that establishes a relationship with your audience and clearly states your topic.        
    Irregular verbs Verbs that change a vowel or convert to another word when representing the past tense.        
    Irregular verbs Verbs that change a vowel or convert to another word when representing the past tense.        
    Jargon An occupation-specific language used by people in a given profession.        
    Jargon An occupation-specific language used by people in a given profession.        
    kinesics The study of body movements.        
    kinesics The study of body movements.        
    laissez-faire Individual who practices a “live and let live” style of leadership.        
    laissez-faire Individual who practices a “live and let live” style of leadership.        
    language A system of symbols, words, and/or gestures used to communicate meaning.        
    language A system of symbols, words, and/or gestures used to communicate meaning.        
    leader-as-coach Individual serving as a teacher, motivator, and keeper of the goals of the group.        
    leader-as-coach Individual serving as a teacher, motivator, and keeper of the goals of the group.        
    leader-as-conductor Central role of bringing people together for a common goal.        
    leader-as-conductor Central role of bringing people together for a common goal.        
    leader-as-technician Occurs when the leader has skills that others do not.        
    leader-as-technician Occurs when the leader has skills that others do not.        
    Letters Brief message sent to recipient(s) that are often outside the organization.        
    Letters Brief message sent to recipient(s) that are often outside the organization.        
    Libel The written form of defamation, or a false statement that damages a reputation.        
    Libel The written form of defamation, or a false statement that damages a reputation.        
    logos Logic and reason.        
    logos Logic and reason.        
    looking-glass self How we look to others and how they view us, treat us, and interact with us to gain insight of our own identity.        
    looking-glass self How we look to others and how they view us, treat us, and interact with us to gain insight of our own identity.        
    Marginal group members Individual who looks outside the group for fulfillment of personal needs.        
    Marginal group members Individual who looks outside the group for fulfillment of personal needs.        
    Mass communication Involves sending a single message to a group.        
    Mass communication Involves sending a single message to a group.        
    master of ceremonies Person designated to conduct a ritual gathering.        
    master of ceremonies Person designated to conduct a ritual gathering.        
    meaning What we share through communication.        
    meaning What we share through communication.        
    measurable gain A system of assessing the extent to which audience members respond to a persuasive message.        
    measurable gain A system of assessing the extent to which audience members respond to a persuasive message.        
    media interview A discussion involving questions and answers for the purpose of broadcast or publication.        
    media interview A discussion involving questions and answers for the purpose of broadcast or publication.        
    meeting Group communication in action around a defined agenda, at a set time, for an established duration.        
    meeting Group communication in action around a defined agenda, at a set time, for an established duration.        
    memo An abbreviation for memorandum; normally used for communicating policies, procedures, or related official business within an organization.        
    memo An abbreviation for memorandum; normally used for communicating policies, procedures, or related official business within an organization.        
    message The stimulus or meaning produced by the source for the receiver or audience.        
    message The stimulus or meaning produced by the source for the receiver or audience.        
    metasearch Returning search results from several search engines at once.        
    metasearch Returning search results from several search engines at once.        
    microgroup A small, independent group that has a link, affiliation, or association with a larger group.        
    microgroup A small, independent group that has a link, affiliation, or association with a larger group.        
    Modifiers Describes a subject in a sentence, or indicates how or when the subject carried out the action.        
    Modifiers Describes a subject in a sentence, or indicates how or when the subject carried out the action.        
    monochromatic time Interruptions are to be avoided, and everything has its own specific time.        
    monochromatic time Interruptions are to be avoided, and everything has its own specific time.        
    Motivation Involves the force, stimulus, or influence to bring about change.        
    Motivation Involves the force, stimulus, or influence to bring about change.        
    Mutuality Searching for common ground and understanding with the audience.        
    Mutuality Searching for common ground and understanding with the audience.        
    Mutuality Searching for common ground and understanding with the audience.        
    Mutuality Searching for common ground and understanding with the audience.        
    negative news message News that the audience does not want to hear, read, or receive.        
    negative news message News that the audience does not want to hear, read, or receive.        
    Netiquette Etiquette, or protocols and norms for communication, on the Internet.        
    Netiquette Etiquette, or protocols and norms for communication, on the Internet.        
    new group member Individual who is still learning the group’s norms and rules.        
    new group member Individual who is still learning the group’s norms and rules.        
    Nonjudgmentalism Being open-minded; willing to examine diverse perspectives.        
    Nonjudgmentalism Being open-minded; willing to examine diverse perspectives.        
    Nonjudgmentalism Being open-minded; willing to examine diverse perspectives.        
    Nonjudgmentalism Being open-minded; willing to examine diverse perspectives.        
    Nonverbal communication The process of conveying a message without the use of words.        
    Nonverbal communication The process of conveying a message without the use of words.        
    norming stage Time when the group establishes norms, or informal rules, for behavior and interaction.        
    norming stage Time when the group establishes norms, or informal rules, for behavior and interaction.        
    Novelty Quality of being new, unusual, or unfamiliar.        
    Novelty Quality of being new, unusual, or unfamiliar.        
    Numerical questions Request a specific number, often a birthdate or a serial number, that itself carries meaning.        
    Numerical questions Request a specific number, often a birthdate or a serial number, that itself carries meaning.        
    object-adaptor Use of an object for a purpose other than its intended design.        
    object-adaptor Use of an object for a purpose other than its intended design.        
    Organization The process of sorting information into logical categories or series.        
    Organization The process of sorting information into logical categories or series.        
    Organizational communication The study of the communication context, environment, and interaction within an organization.        
    Organizational communication The study of the communication context, environment, and interaction within an organization.        
    organizing principle A core assumption around which everything else is arranged.        
    organizing principle A core assumption around which everything else is arranged.        
    outline A framework that organizes main ideas and subordinate ideas in a hierarchical series.        
    outline A framework that organizes main ideas and subordinate ideas in a hierarchical series.        
    outline A framework that organizes main ideas and subordinate ideas in a hierarchical series.        
    outline A framework that organizes main ideas and subordinate ideas in a hierarchical series.        
    Page views A count of how many times a Web page is viewed, irrespective of the number of files it contains.        
    Page views A count of how many times a Web page is viewed, irrespective of the number of files it contains.        
    paradigms A clear point of view involving theories, laws, and/or generalizations that provide a framework for understanding.        
    paradigms A clear point of view involving theories, laws, and/or generalizations that provide a framework for understanding.        
    Paralanguage Involves verbal and nonverbal aspects of speech that influence meaning, including tone, intensity, pausing, and silence.        
    Paralanguage Involves verbal and nonverbal aspects of speech that influence meaning, including tone, intensity, pausing, and silence.        
    Parallel construction The use of the same grammatical pattern; it can be applied to words, phrases, and sentences.        
    Parallel construction The use of the same grammatical pattern; it can be applied to words, phrases, and sentences.        
    paraphrase To rewrite information in your own words.        
    paraphrase To rewrite information in your own words.        
    passive voice Sentence structure in which the subject receives the action.        
    passive voice Sentence structure in which the subject receives the action.        
    Patch writing Verbatim cut-and-paste insertion of fragments of other publications into one’s own writing without crediting the sources.        
    Patch writing Verbatim cut-and-paste insertion of fragments of other publications into one’s own writing without crediting the sources.        
    pathos Passion and enthusiasm.        
    pathos Passion and enthusiasm.        
    performing stage Time when the group accomplishes its mandate, fulfills its purpose, and reaches its goals.        
    performing stage Time when the group accomplishes its mandate, fulfills its purpose, and reaches its goals.        
    personal individual The person who strikes a healthy balance in terms of human interaction.        
    personal individual The person who strikes a healthy balance in terms of human interaction.        
    personal space The “bubble” of space surrounding each individual.        
    personal space The “bubble” of space surrounding each individual.        
    Persuasion An act or process of presenting arguments to move, motivate, or change your audience.        
    Persuasion An act or process of presenting arguments to move, motivate, or change your audience.        
    phatic communion Ritual small talk.        
    phatic communion Ritual small talk.        
    physical characteristics Eye color, hair length, height, and so forth.        
    physical characteristics Eye color, hair length, height, and so forth.        
    Pitch Frequency, high or low, of one’s voice.        
    Pitch Frequency, high or low, of one’s voice.        
    plagiarism Representing another’s work as your own.        
    plagiarism Representing another’s work as your own.        
    plagiarism Representing another’s work as your own.        
    plagiarism Representing another’s work as your own.        
    point of view Your perception of an idea or concept from your previous experience and understanding.        
    point of view Your perception of an idea or concept from your previous experience and understanding.        
    Polychromatic time A more fluid approach to scheduling time, where several things can be done at once, and each may have different levels of importance and urgency.        
    Polychromatic time A more fluid approach to scheduling time, where several things can be done at once, and each may have different levels of importance and urgency.        
    potential member Individual who is qualified to join a group but has not yet joined.        
    potential member Individual who is qualified to join a group but has not yet joined.        
    precise words Words that paint as vivid and accurate a mental picture as possible for your audience.        
    precise words Words that paint as vivid and accurate a mental picture as possible for your audience.        
    predicted outcome value theory Asserts that not only do we want to reduce uncertainty, we also want to maximize our possible benefit from the association.        
    predicted outcome value theory Asserts that not only do we want to reduce uncertainty, we also want to maximize our possible benefit from the association.        
    pregnant pause A silence between verbal messages that is full of meaning.        
    pregnant pause A silence between verbal messages that is full of meaning.        
    Prejudice A negative preconceived judgment or opinion that guides conduct or social behavior.        
    Prejudice A negative preconceived judgment or opinion that guides conduct or social behavior.        
    Prejudice A negative preconceived judgment or opinion that guides conduct or social behavior.McLean, S. (2005). The basics of interpersonal communication. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.        
    Prejudice A negative preconceived judgment or opinion that guides conduct or social behavior.McLean, S. (2005). The basics of interpersonal communication. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.        
    prepositional phrase A phrase composed of a preposition and its object, which may be a noun, a pronoun, or a clause.        
    prepositional phrase A phrase composed of a preposition and its object, which may be a noun, a pronoun, or a clause.        
    presentation to inform An explanation, a report, a description, or a demonstration of how to do something.        
    presentation to inform An explanation, a report, a description, or a demonstration of how to do something.        
    press conference A presentation of information to the media.        
    press conference A presentation of information to the media.        
    preunderstanding A set of expectations and assumptions from previous experience that we apply to a new problem or situation.        
    preunderstanding A set of expectations and assumptions from previous experience that we apply to a new problem or situation.        
    preview An indication, verbal or nonverbal, of what the conversation is about, both in terms of content and of the relationship.        
    preview An indication, verbal or nonverbal, of what the conversation is about, both in terms of content and of the relationship.        
    Primary messages Refer to the intentional content in a message, both verbal and nonverbal.        
    Primary messages Refer to the intentional content in a message, both verbal and nonverbal.        
    priming An excited state of awareness.        
    priming An excited state of awareness.        
    Probing feedback Communicates targeted requests for specific information.        
    Probing feedback Communicates targeted requests for specific information.        
    process A dynamic activity that is hard to describe because it changes.        
    process A dynamic activity that is hard to describe because it changes.        
    Production Involves the act of creating your speech from the elements you have gathered; you may start to consider what comes first, what goes last, and how you will link your ideas and examples together.        
    Production Involves the act of creating your speech from the elements you have gathered; you may start to consider what comes first, what goes last, and how you will link your ideas and examples together.        
    Production Involves the act of creating your speech from the elements you have gathered; you may start to consider what comes first, what goes last, and how you will link your ideas and examples together.        
    Production Involves the act of creating your speech from the elements you have gathered; you may start to consider what comes first, what goes last, and how you will link your ideas and examples together.        
    pronunciation The way a word or phrase sounds when stated orally.        
    pronunciation The way a word or phrase sounds when stated orally.        
    proxemics The study of the human use of space and distance in communication.        
    proxemics The study of the human use of space and distance in communication.        
    Proximity The perceptual organization of information based on physical relationship of space to objects.        
    Proximity The perceptual organization of information based on physical relationship of space to objects.        
    public communication Communication in which one person speaks or writes a message to a group of people.        
    public communication Communication in which one person speaks or writes a message to a group of people.        
    Punctuation marks The traffic signals, signs, and indications that allow us to navigate the written word.        
    Punctuation marks The traffic signals, signs, and indications that allow us to navigate the written word.        
    Qualitative research Involves interactions, which by their very nature are subject to interpretation and, as a result, are less reliable and statistically valid.        
    Qualitative research Involves interactions, which by their very nature are subject to interpretation and, as a result, are less reliable and statistically valid.        
    Qualitative research Involves interactions, which by their very nature are subject to interpretation and, as a result, are less reliable and statistically valid.        
    Qualitative research Involves interactions, which by their very nature are subject to interpretation and, as a result, are less reliable and statistically valid.        
    Quantitative research Investigation and analysis of data and relationships between data that can be represented by numbers.        
    Quantitative research Investigation and analysis of data and relationships between data that can be represented by numbers.        
    Quantitative research Investigation and analysis of data and relationships between data that can be represented by numbers.        
    Quantitative research Investigation and analysis of data and relationships between data that can be represented by numbers.        
    Quotes Memorable sayings extracted from written or verbal messages.        
    Quotes Memorable sayings extracted from written or verbal messages.        
    Racist language Discriminates against members of a given race or ethnic group.        
    Racist language Discriminates against members of a given race or ethnic group.        
    ratings Measurements of the estimated number of viewers.        
    ratings Measurements of the estimated number of viewers.        
    Readability Readers’ ability to read and comprehend the document.        
    Readability Readers’ ability to read and comprehend the document.        
    receiver Receives the message from the source, analyzing and interpreting the message in ways both intended and unintended by the source.        
    receiver Receives the message from the source, analyzing and interpreting the message in ways both intended and unintended by the source.        
    reciprocity The mutual expectation for exchange of value or service.        
    reciprocity The mutual expectation for exchange of value or service.        
    Reciprocity The mutual expectation for exchange of value or service.        
    Reciprocity The mutual expectation for exchange of value or service.        
    Reciprocity The mutual expectation for exchange of value or service.        
    Reciprocity The mutual expectation for exchange of value or service.        
    Reference Attention to the source and way you present your information.        
    Reference Attention to the source and way you present your information.        
    reflection A mental review of the task and your performance.        
    reflection A mental review of the task and your performance.        
    Regulators Nonverbal expression that controls, encourages, or discourages interaction.        
    Regulators Nonverbal expression that controls, encourages, or discourages interaction.        
    relaxation step Lowering your hand past your waistline and away from your body.        
    relaxation step Lowering your hand past your waistline and away from your body.        
    Relevance Means that the information applies, relates, or has significance to the listener.        
    Relevance Means that the information applies, relates, or has significance to the listener.        
    Reliability The extent to which an assessment instrument measures the same way each time given the same variables, circumstances, or conditions.        
    Reliability The extent to which an assessment instrument measures the same way each time given the same variables, circumstances, or conditions.        
    Reports Document designed to record and convey information to the reader.        
    Reports Document designed to record and convey information to the reader.        
    Research methodologies The methods used in investigation.        
    Research methodologies The methods used in investigation.        
    residual message Idea or thought that stays with your audience well after the speech.        
    residual message Idea or thought that stays with your audience well after the speech.        
    residual message Idea or thought that stays with your audience well after the speech.        
    residual message Idea or thought that stays with your audience well after the speech.        
    respect Giving and displaying particular attention to the value you associate with someone or a group.        
    respect Giving and displaying particular attention to the value you associate with someone or a group.        
    Respect Giving and displaying particular attention to the value you associate with someone or a group.        
    Respect Giving and displaying particular attention to the value you associate with someone or a group.        
    response rate The number of replies in relation to the number of letters sent.        
    response rate The number of replies in relation to the number of letters sent.        
    résumé Document that summarizes your education, skills, talents, employment history, and experiences in a clear and concise format for potential employers.        
    résumé Document that summarizes your education, skills, talents, employment history, and experiences in a clear and concise format for potential employers.        
    revise Change one word for another, make subtle changes, and improve a document.        
    revise Change one word for another, make subtle changes, and improve a document.        
    Revision The process by which you look over your speech again in order to correct or improve it.        
    Revision The process by which you look over your speech again in order to correct or improve it.        
    Revision The process by which you look over your speech again in order to correct or improve it.        
    Revision The process by which you look over your speech again in order to correct or improve it.        
    rhetoric The art of presenting an argument.        
    rhetoric The art of presenting an argument.        
    rhetorical situation Involves three elements: the set of expectations inherent in the context, the audience, and the purpose of your speech or presentation.        
    rhetorical situation Involves three elements: the set of expectations inherent in the context, the audience, and the purpose of your speech or presentation.        
    Rites of initiation These mark the transition of the role or status of the individual within the group.        
    Rites of initiation These mark the transition of the role or status of the individual within the group.        
    Roasts Public proclamations that honor someone by ridiculing or criticizing them.        
    Roasts Public proclamations that honor someone by ridiculing or criticizing them.        
    Role identities Expected social behaviors. Another aspect of intercultural communication that can act as a barrier to effective communication.        
    Role identities Expected social behaviors. Another aspect of intercultural communication that can act as a barrier to effective communication.        
    sales message The central persuasive message that intrigues, informs, persuades, calls to action, and closes the sale.        
    sales message The central persuasive message that intrigues, informs, persuades, calls to action, and closes the sale.        
    Scarcity The perception of inadequate supply or a limited resource.        
    Scarcity The perception of inadequate supply or a limited resource.        
    secondary groups Groups that meet some, but not all, of individuals’ needs.        
    secondary groups Groups that meet some, but not all, of individuals’ needs.        
    Secondary messages Refer to the unintentional content in a message, both verbal and nonverbal.        
    Secondary messages Refer to the unintentional content in a message, both verbal and nonverbal.        
    selection Action of sorting competing messages or choosing stimuli.        
    selection Action of sorting competing messages or choosing stimuli.        
    Selective retention Involves choosing to remember one stimulus over another.        
    Selective retention Involves choosing to remember one stimulus over another.        
    self One’s own sense of individuality, personal characteristics, motivations, and actions.        
    self One’s own sense of individuality, personal characteristics, motivations, and actions.        
    self One’s own sense of individuality, personal characteristics, motivations, and actions.        
    self One’s own sense of individuality, personal characteristics, motivations, and actions.        
    Self-actualization Involves reaching your full potential, feeling accepted for who you are, and perceiving a degree of control or empowerment in your environment.        
    Self-actualization Involves reaching your full potential, feeling accepted for who you are, and perceiving a degree of control or empowerment in your environment.        
    self-concept What we perceive ourselves to be.        
    self-concept What we perceive ourselves to be.        
    self-concept What we perceive ourselves to be.        
    self-concept What we perceive ourselves to be.        
    Self-disclosure Information, thoughts, or feelings we tell others about ourselves that they would not otherwise know.        
    Self-disclosure Information, thoughts, or feelings we tell others about ourselves that they would not otherwise know.        
    self-esteem How you feel about yourself; your feelings of self-worth, self-acceptance, and self-respect.        
    self-esteem How you feel about yourself; your feelings of self-worth, self-acceptance, and self-respect.        
    self-fulfilling prophecy Phenomenon in which someone’s behavior comes to match and mirror others’ expectations.        
    self-fulfilling prophecy Phenomenon in which someone’s behavior comes to match and mirror others’ expectations.        
    Semantic rules Govern the meaning of words and how to interpret them.        
    Semantic rules Govern the meaning of words and how to interpret them.        
    semantic triangle Three-part model in which a symbol refers to a thought, which in turn refers to the thing it symbolizes.        
    semantic triangle Three-part model in which a symbol refers to a thought, which in turn refers to the thing it symbolizes.        
    Sensitivity Your capacity to respond to stimulation, be excited, be responsive, or be susceptible to new information.        
    Sensitivity Your capacity to respond to stimulation, be excited, be responsive, or be susceptible to new information.        
    serif A small cross line, often perpendicular to the stroke of the letter, that is decorative but also makes the letter easier to read.        
    serif A small cross line, often perpendicular to the stroke of the letter, that is decorative but also makes the letter easier to read.        
    Sexist language Uses gender as a discriminating factor.        
    Sexist language Uses gender as a discriminating factor.        
    sharing Doing something together with one or more other people.        
    sharing Doing something together with one or more other people.        
    Signposts (or indicators) Key words that alert the audience to a change in topic, a tangential explanation, an example, or a conclusion.        
    Signposts (or indicators) Key words that alert the audience to a change in topic, a tangential explanation, an example, or a conclusion.        
    Similarity The perceptual organization of information based on perceived points of common characteristics across distinct items.        
    Similarity The perceptual organization of information based on perceived points of common characteristics across distinct items.        
    Slang The use of existing or newly invented words to take the place of standard or traditional words with the intent of adding an unconventional, nonstandard, humorous, or rebellious effect.        
    Slang The use of existing or newly invented words to take the place of standard or traditional words with the intent of adding an unconventional, nonstandard, humorous, or rebellious effect.        
    Slang The use of existing or newly invented words to take the place of standard or traditional words with the intent of adding an unconventional, nonstandard, humorous, or rebellious effect.        
    Slang The use of existing or newly invented words to take the place of standard or traditional words with the intent of adding an unconventional, nonstandard, humorous, or rebellious effect.        
    social comparisons Evaluating ourselves in relation to our peers of similar status, similar characteristics, or similar qualities.        
    social comparisons Evaluating ourselves in relation to our peers of similar status, similar characteristics, or similar qualities.        
    social networking site A site where people gather virtually to interact.        
    social networking site A site where people gather virtually to interact.        
    social penetration theory Theory by Irwin Altman and Dalmas Taylor which describes how we move from superficial talk to intimate and revealing talk.        
    social penetration theory Theory by Irwin Altman and Dalmas Taylor which describes how we move from superficial talk to intimate and revealing talk.        
    social person Person who strikes a healthy balance between being withdrawn and being the constant center of attention.        
    social person Person who strikes a healthy balance between being withdrawn and being the constant center of attention.        
    socialization The process of learning to associate, communicate, or interact within a group.        
    socialization The process of learning to associate, communicate, or interact within a group.        
    sociocentrism Involves the use of society-centered standards.        
    sociocentrism Involves the use of society-centered standards.        
    soft sell message A subtle, low-pressure method of selling, cross-selling, or advertising a product or service.        
    soft sell message A subtle, low-pressure method of selling, cross-selling, or advertising a product or service.        
    source Person who imagines, creates, and sends the message.        
    source Person who imagines, creates, and sends the message.        
    speaker introduction Establishes the speaker’s credibility, motivates audience interest, and says what the speaker could not say.        
    speaker introduction Establishes the speaker’s credibility, motivates audience interest, and says what the speaker could not say.        
    stage The setting, scene, and context of the communication interaction.        
    stage The setting, scene, and context of the communication interaction.        
    Statistically significant findings Conclusions that have a high level of reliability, in that if the same test is applied in the same context to the same subjects, the results will come out the same time and time again.        
    Statistically significant findings Conclusions that have a high level of reliability, in that if the same test is applied in the same context to the same subjects, the results will come out the same time and time again.        
    Stereotypes Generalizations about a group of people that oversimplify their culture        
    Stereotypes Generalizations about a group of people that oversimplify their culture        
    storming stage Time of struggles as group members themselves sort out their differences.        
    storming stage Time of struggles as group members themselves sort out their differences.        
    summarize To reduce a concept, idea, or data set to its most basic point or element.        
    summarize To reduce a concept, idea, or data set to its most basic point or element.        
    supportive communication Focuses on the points and not personalities.        
    supportive communication Focuses on the points and not personalities.        
    Supportive feedback Communicates encouragement in response to a message.        
    Supportive feedback Communicates encouragement in response to a message.        
    Syntactic rules Govern the order of words in a sentence.        
    Syntactic rules Govern the order of words in a sentence.        
    syntax The grammatical arrangement of words in a sentence.        
    syntax The grammatical arrangement of words in a sentence.        
    tailor your message Zeroing in on your target audience.        
    tailor your message Zeroing in on your target audience.        
    Targeted practice Identifying one’s weak areas and specifically working to improve them.        
    Targeted practice Identifying one’s weak areas and specifically working to improve them.        
    Templates The normative expectations for a specific type of document.        
    Templates The normative expectations for a specific type of document.        
    Territory The space you claim as your own, are responsible for, or are willing to defend.        
    Territory The space you claim as your own, are responsible for, or are willing to defend.        
    texting Written communication in the form of brief messages using a digital device.        
    texting Written communication in the form of brief messages using a digital device.        
    theory of learning styles The idea that people learn better if the message is presented in a strategy that fits with the types of intelligence in which they are strongest.        
    theory of learning styles The idea that people learn better if the message is presented in a strategy that fits with the types of intelligence in which they are strongest.        
    Theory X Asserts that workers are motivated by their basic (low-level) needs and have a general disposition against labor.        
    Theory X Asserts that workers are motivated by their basic (low-level) needs and have a general disposition against labor.        
    Theory Y Views employees as ambitious, self-directed, and capable of self-motivation.        
    Theory Y Views employees as ambitious, self-directed, and capable of self-motivation.        
    Theory Z Combines elements of both Theory X and Y; views workers as having a high need for reinforcement and belonging.        
    Theory Z Combines elements of both Theory X and Y; views workers as having a high need for reinforcement and belonging.        
    thesis statement A short, specific sentence capturing the central idea of your speech.        
    thesis statement A short, specific sentence capturing the central idea of your speech.        
    Toasts Formal expressions of goodwill, appreciation, or calls for group attention to an issue or person in a public setting, often followed by synchronous consumption of beverages.        
    Toasts Formal expressions of goodwill, appreciation, or calls for group attention to an issue or person in a public setting, often followed by synchronous consumption of beverages.        
    Tone The general manner of expression of the message.        
    Tone The general manner of expression of the message.        
    topic sentence Sentence that states the main thesis, purpose, or subject of the paragraph.        
    topic sentence Sentence that states the main thesis, purpose, or subject of the paragraph.        
    transactional Model of communication in which actions happen at the same time.        
    transactional Model of communication in which actions happen at the same time.        
    Transitions Bridges between ideas, thoughts or concepts; words, phrases, or visual devices that help the audience follow the speaker’s ideas, connect the main points to each other, and see the relationships in a speech.        
    Transitions Bridges between ideas, thoughts or concepts; words, phrases, or visual devices that help the audience follow the speaker’s ideas, connect the main points to each other, and see the relationships in a speech.        
    Transitions Bridges between ideas, thoughts or concepts; words, phrases, or visual devices that help the audience follow the speaker’s ideas, connect the main points to each other, and see the relationships in a speech.        
    Transitions Bridges between ideas, thoughts or concepts; words, phrases, or visual devices that help the audience follow the speaker’s ideas, connect the main points to each other, and see the relationships in a speech.        
    trigger A word, sound, or image that causes an activity, precipitates an event or interaction, or provokes a reaction between two or more people.        
    trigger A word, sound, or image that causes an activity, precipitates an event or interaction, or provokes a reaction between two or more people.        
    Trust The ability to rely on the character or truth of someone.        
    Trust The ability to rely on the character or truth of someone.        
    Typeface The visual design of symbols, including letters and numbers.        
    Typeface The visual design of symbols, including letters and numbers.        
    Uncertainty theory States that we choose to know more about others with whom we have interactions in order to reduce or resolve the anxiety associated with the unknown.        
    Uncertainty theory States that we choose to know more about others with whom we have interactions in order to reduce or resolve the anxiety associated with the unknown.        
    understanding To perceive, to interpret, and to relate our perception and interpretation to what we already know.        
    understanding To perceive, to interpret, and to relate our perception and interpretation to what we already know.        
    Understanding feedback Communicates sympathy and empathy for the source of the message.        
    Understanding feedback Communicates sympathy and empathy for the source of the message.        
    Validity The extent to which a point, concept, conclusion, or indication of measurement is accurate based on rigorous examination.        
    Validity The extent to which a point, concept, conclusion, or indication of measurement is accurate based on rigorous examination.        
    Values Core concepts and ideas of what we consider good or bad, right or wrong, or what is worth the sacrifice.        
    Values Core concepts and ideas of what we consider good or bad, right or wrong, or what is worth the sacrifice.        
    Verb tense Refers to the point in time where action occurs.        
    Verb tense Refers to the point in time where action occurs.        
    verbatim Word for word.        
    verbatim Word for word.        
    Viral messages Words, sounds, or images that compel the audience to pass them along.        
    Viral messages Words, sounds, or images that compel the audience to pass them along.        
    volume Loudness or softness of one’s voice.        
    volume Loudness or softness of one’s voice.        
    Web server A computer dedicated to serving the online requests for information via the Internet.        
    Web server A computer dedicated to serving the online requests for information via the Internet.        
    white space The space on the page free of text.        
    white space The space on the page free of text.        
    Writing style Also known as voice or tone; the manner in which a writer addresses the reader.        
    Writing style Also known as voice or tone; the manner in which a writer addresses the reader.