# 11.7: Summary and Key Terms

## Section Summaries

### 11.1 Describe Capital Investment Decisions and How They Are Applied

• Capital investment decisions select a project for future business development. These projects typically require a large outlay of cash, provide an uncertain return, and tie up resources for an extended period of time.
• Having a large number of alternatives requires a careful budgeting and analysis process. This process includes determining capital needs, exploring resource limitations, establishing baseline criteria for alternatives, evaluating alternatives using screening and preference decisions, and making the decision.
• Screening decisions help eliminate undesirable alternatives that may waste time and money. Preference decisions rank alternatives emerging from the screening process to help make the final decision. Both decision avenues use capital budgeting methods to select between alternatives.

### 11.2 Evaluate the Payback and Accounting Rate of Return in Capital Investment Decisions

• The payback method determines how long it will take a company to recoup their investment. Annual cash flows are compared to the initial investment but the time value of money is not considered and cashflows beyond the payback period are ignored.
• The accounting rate of return considers incremental net income as it compares to the initial investment. Time value of money is not considered with this method.
• Incremental net income determines the net income expected if the company accepts the investment opportunity, as opposed to not investing. Incremental net income is the difference between incremental revenues and incremental expenses.

### 11.3 Explain the Time Value of Money and Calculate Present and Future Values of Lump Sums and Annuities

• A dollar is worth more today than it will be in the future. This is due to many reasons including the power of investment in today’s economy, market inflation, and the ability to use the money in the present to make more money in the future, with interest.
• Present value expresses the future value of a dollar in today’s (present) value. Present value tables, showing the present value factor intersection of periods and interest rate, are used to multiply by the final payout amount to compute today’s value.
• The future value shows what the value of an investment will be after a certain period of time. Future value tables, showing the future value factor intersection of periods and interest rate, are used to multiply by the initial investment amount to compute future value.
• A lump sum is a one-time payment after a certain period of time, whereas an ordinary annuity involves equal installments in a series of payments over time. A business can use lump sum or ordinary annuity calculations for present value and future value calculations.

### 11.4 Use Discounted Cash Flow Models to Make Capital Investment Decisions

• The discounted cash flow model assigns values to a project’s alternatives using time value of money and discounts future rates back to present value. Two measurement tools are used in discounted cash flows: net present value and internal rate of return.
• Net present value considers an expected rate of return, converts future cash flows into present value, and compares that to the initial investment cost. If the outcome is positive, the company would look to invest in the project.
• Internal rate of return shows the profitability of an investment, where NPV equals zero. If the corresponding interest rate exceeds the expected rate of return, the company would invest in the project.

### 11.5 Compare and Contrast Non-Time Value-Based Methods and Time Value-Based Methods in Capital Investment Decisions

• The payback method uses a simple calculation, removes unviable alternatives quickly, and considers investment risk. However, it disregards the time value of money, ignores profitability, and does not consider cash flows after recouping the investment.
• The accounting rate of return uses a simple calculation, considers profitability, and removes unviable options quickly. However, it disregards the time value of money, values return rates more than risk, and ignores external influential factors.
• Net present value considers the time value of money, ranks higher risk investments, and compares future earnings in today’s value. However, it cannot easily compare dissimilar investment opportunities, it uses a more difficult calculation, and it has limitations with the estimation of an expected rate of return.
• Internal rate of return considers the time value of money, removes the dollar bias, and leads a company to a decision, unlike non-time value methods. However, it has a bias toward return rates instead of higher risk investment consideration, it is a more difficult calculation, and it does not consider the time it will take to recoup an investment.

## Key Terms

accounting rate of return (ARR)
return on investment considering changes to net income
alternatives
options available for investment
annuities due
equal installments paid at the beginning of each payment period within the series
annuity
series of equal payments made over time
capital investment
company’s contribution of funds toward long-term assets for further growth; also called capital budgeting
cash flow
cash receipts and cash disbursements as a result of business activity
cash inflow
money received or cost savings from a capital investment
cash outflow
money paid or increased cost expenditures from capital investment
compounding
earning interest on previous interest earned, along with the interest earned on the original investment
discounted cash flow model
assigns a value to a business opportunity using time-value measurement tools
discounting
process that determines the present value of a single payment or stream of payments to be received
future value (FV)
value of an investment after a certain period of time
hurdle rate
minimum required rate of return on an investment to consider an alternative for further evaluation
internal rate of return method (IRR)
calculation to determine profitability or growth potential of an investment, expressed as a percentage, at the point where NPV equals zero
lump sum
one-time payment or repayment of funds at a particular point in time
net present value method (NPV)
discounts future cash flows to their present value at the expected rate of return, and compares that to the initial investment
non-time value methods
analysis that does not consider the comparison value of a dollar today to a dollar in the future
operating expenses
daily operational costs not associated with the direct selling of products or services
ordinary annuities
equal installments paid at the end of each payment period within the series
payback method (PM)
calculation of the length of time it takes a company to recoup their initial investment
preference decision
process of comparing potential projects that meet screening decision criteria, and will rank order of importance, feasibility, and desirability to differentiate among alternatives
present value (PV)
future value of an investment expressed in today’s value
screening decision
process of removing alternatives from the decision-making process that would be less desirable to pursue given their inability to meet basic standards
time value of money
assertion that the value of a dollar today is worth more than the value of a dollar in the future